(54.158.195.221) 您好!臺灣時間:2017/08/23 02:38          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
研究生:陳德治
研究生(外文):Te-Chih Chen
論文名稱:台灣雉尾水雉的生殖生物學
論文名稱(外文):Breeding Biology of Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus in Taiwan
指導教授:林曜松
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:水雉科繁殖生物學殺嬰婚配制度日活動模式
外文關鍵詞:Jacanidaebreeding biologyinfanticidemating systemdiurnal pattern
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:560
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣的雉尾水雉因棲地破壞導致族群數量迅速減少,引起重視並展開復育工作,但卻缺乏詳盡的研究資料,而生殖生物學資料在擬定保育或經營管理策略時可提供有用的參考資訊,本研究於2002~2007年,在台南縣雉尾水雉主要繁殖及度冬的棲地長期觀察與記錄其族群的數量變化以及各項生殖生物學資料,並蒐集各項環境因子資料,尋求其對繁殖成功率可能的影響或關聯性。研究期間共記錄395巢,1466個卵,孵化744隻雛鳥,群集分佈在數個繁殖區,環境因子中僅有巢與最近的河流直線距離與雛鳥20天存活率之間有顯著的正相關,可能和颱風豪雨常造成鄰近河流的菱角田潰堤,使巢卵及雛鳥流失,導致繁殖失敗有關,因此在保育計畫中必須針對群集的繁殖區重點加以保護,並預防豪雨的危害。
本研究第一次發現雉尾水雉雄鳥的殺嬰行為,並深入探究其機制和生殖上的適應性及對族群動態的影響。從結果推論雉尾水雉雄鳥利用殺嬰行為作為產卵後確認父性的方法,以避免將孵卵及育雛的生殖能量投資在非婚生子代身上。殺嬰行為對整體繁殖率的影響目前並不清楚,尚需更多的研究來探討。
本研究從行為活動時間分配模式探討婚配制度的演化,發現補充巢假說是最符合雉尾水雉一妻多夫制度的演化機制。雄鳥的日活動週期顯示生殖行為在繁殖後期集中於正午時段,雄鳥頻繁回巢孵卵以保護卵,避免正午時的高溫及強烈紫外線傷害。
The population size of Pheasant-tailed Jacana in Taiwan have greatly declined due to habitat destruction . The population decline has attracted attention and various protective actions have been taken. However, few studies have done on the Pheasant-tailed Jacana. Understanding the breeding biology of Pheasant-tailed Jacana is critical in making conservation actions or management strategies. This study was conducted from year 2002 to 2007. I recorded the population dynamics and breeding activities of Pheasant-tailed Jacana in Tainan County, the main breeding and wintering area in Taiwan. I also measured and tested the relationships between environmental variables and the breeding success rate. During the study periods, I observed 395 nests, 1466 eggs and 744 chicks. The distribution of nests was in clumps in some breeding areas. The 20 days survival rate of fledgling was positively correlated with the nearest distance to river of the nest. Because the water chestnut fields adjacent to rivers were usually flooded by the heavy rains in typhoon season and subsequently the nests and chicks had a higher chance of nest failure. It is necessary to protect the main breeding areas that most nests located and to prevent the damages of floods.
This study is the first to report infanticide by male Pheasant-tailed Jacanas and to discuss its mechanisms and reproductive fitness. I suggest that male Pheasant-tailed Jacana may use infanticide as a strategy to avoid cuckoldry when the paternity of eggs is in doubt. Males can prevent investing extra-paired offsprings by infanticide. How infanticide influences the reproductive success rate of Pheasant-tailed Jacana was not clear and needed more studies.
This study also discussed the evolution of the mating system and the results were consistent with the predictions of the replacement clutches hypothesis in Pheasant-tailed Jacana. The time spent on breeding behaviors (mostly incubating behavior) of male jacanas peaked around noon in late breeding stage. I suggest this was due to the high air temperature of the study site during breeding season. Males had to stay in the nests to provide eggs and chicks protection from high temperature and ultraviolet ray.
口試委員會審定書……………………………………………………………. I
誌謝……………………………………………………………………………. II
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………….III
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………. IV
前言……………………………………………………………………………….VI
第一章 台灣台南地區雉尾水雉的生殖生物學研究
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………… 1
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………… 2
研究背景…………………………………………………………………… 4
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 9
結果………………………………………………………………………… 18
討論………………………………………………………………………… 24
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 30
圖1、台南地區雉尾水雉調查樣區位置示意圖………………………… 37
圖2、2004~2006年雉尾水雉巢位分佈圖………………………………… 38
圖 3、各樣區2004~2006年雉尾水雉築巢數量比較圖…………………… 39
圖4、2004~2006年雉尾水雉巢數、卵數和菱角田面積比較圖………………………………………………………………… 40
圖5、2004~2006年雉尾水雉卵孵化率、雛鳥20天存活率和巢繁殖成功率比較圖……………………………………………………………… 41
圖6、各調查樣區雉尾水雉卵孵化率、雛鳥20天存活率和巢繁殖成功率比較圖……………………………………………………………… 42
圖7、2004~2006年各月份雉尾水雉族群數量比較圖…………………… 43
圖8、雉尾水雉雛鳥20天存活率和巢與最近河流直線距離之迴歸分析圖………………………………………………………………… 44
表1、雉尾水雉卵孵化率與各項環境因子之複回歸分析表………………………………………………………………… 45
表2、雉尾水雉雛鳥20天存活率與各項環境因子之複回歸分析表………………………………………………………………… 46
第二章 雉尾水雉在臺灣繁殖期的行為活動時間分配
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………… 47
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………… 48
研究背景…………………………………………………………………… 50
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 52
結果………………………………………………………………………… 55
討論………………………………………………………………………… 57
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 61
圖1、2003~2004年台南地區雉尾水雉不同生殖階段的雄、雌鳥行為時間分配比較圖………………………………………………………… 65
圖2、2003~2004年台南地區雉尾水雉雄、雌鳥不同生殖階段的行為時間分配比較圖………………………………………………………… 66
圖3、2003~2004年台南地區雉尾水雉雌鳥各種類型行為的日活動週期比較圖………………………………………………………………… 67
圖4、2003~2004年台南地區雉尾水雉雄鳥各種類型行為的日活動週期比較圖………………………………………………………………… 68
第三章 雉尾水雉雄鳥的殺嬰行為
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………… 69
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………… 70
研究背景…………………………………………………………………… 71
材料與方法………………………………………………………………… 74
結果………………………………………………………………………… 75
討論………………………………………………………………………… 77
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 81
表1、研究觀察的各巢特徵一覽表……………………………………… 87
總結─保育策略建議………………………………………………………….VIII
附錄─雉尾水雉繫放資料………………………………………………….XII
第一章參考文獻
Bekker, H., and B. Iuell. 2003. Habitat fragmentation due to infrastructure. Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Ecology and Transportation:1-14.
Betts, B. J., and D. A. J.Jenni. 1991. Time budget and the adaptiveness of polyandry in Northern Jacana. Wilson Bulletin 103:578-597.
Bradley, M., J. Robin, C. Gordon, and D. Tom. 1997. Influence of weather on breeding success of peregrine falcons in the Arctic. The Auk 114:786-791.
Burger, J. 1982. An overview of proximate factors affecting reproductive success in colonial birds: concluding remarks and summary of panel discussion. Colonial Waterbirds 5:58-65.
Burke, D. M., and E. Nol. 1998. Influence of food abundance, nest-site habitat, and forest fragmentation on breeding Ovenbirds. The Auk 115:96-104.
Butchart, S. H. M. 2000. Population structure and breeding system of the sex-role reversed , polyandrous Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus. Ibis 142:93-102.
del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 3. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.:p.276~291.
Donovan, T. M., F. R. Thompson, J. Faaborg, and J. R. Probst. 1995. Reproductive success of migratory birds in habitat sources and sinks. Conservation Biology 9:1380-1395.
Dostine, P. L., and S. R. Morton. 2000. Seasonal abundance and diet of the Comb-crested Jacana Irediparra gaallinacea in the tropical northern territory. EMU 100:299-311.
Doutrelant, C., R. Covas, A. Caizergues, and M. D. Plessis. 2004. Unexpected sex ratio adjustment in a colonial cooperative bird: pairs with helpers produce more of the helping sex whereas pairs without helpers do not. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56:149-154.
Ellegren, H., L. Gustafsson, and B. C. Sheldon. 1996. Sex ratio adjustment in relation to paternal attractiveness in a wild bird population. PNAS 93:11723-11728.
Emlen, S. T., N. J. Demong, and D. J. Emlen. 1989. Experimental induction of infanticide in female Wattled Jacanas. The Auk 106:1-7.
Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring. 1977. Ecology, sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215-223.
Ewen, J. G., R. H. Clarke, E. Moysey, R. L. Boulton, R. H. Crozier, and M. F. 2001. Primary sex ratio bias in an endangered cooperatively breeding bird, the black-eared miner, and its implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 101:137-145.
Fowler, G. S. 1995. Stages of age-related reproductive success in birds: simultaneous effects of age, pair-bond duration and reproductive experience. American Zoologist 35:318-328.
Frederic, A., M. Børge, W. Henri, and C. Olivier. 2007. Age-specific reproductive success in a long-lived bird: do older parents resist stress better? Journal of Animal Ecology 76:1181-1191.
Fry, C. H. 1983. The jacanid radius and NMicroparra , a neotenic genus. Gerfaut 73:173-184.
Garamszegi, L. Z., J. Török, G. Michl, and A. P. Møller. 2004. Female survival, lifetime reproductive success and mating status in a passerine bird. Oecologia 138:48-56.
Garnett, S. 1985. Evidence for polyandry in the Comb-crested Jacana. The Stilt 7:24.
George, T. L., and D. S. Dobkin. 2002. Introduction: habitat fragmentation and westernbirds. Studies in Avian Biology 25:4-7.
Geslin, T., S. Questiau, and M.-C. Eybert. 2004. Age-related improvement of reproductive success in Bluethroats Luscinia svecica. Bird Study 51:178-184.
Göth, A., and D. T. Booth. 2004. Temperature-dependent sex ratio in a bird. Biology Letters Published online: http://galliform.bhs.mq.edu.au/megapode_project/Reprints/goeth&booth.pdf.
Haegen, W. M. V. 2007. Fragmention by agriculture influences reproductive success of birds in a shrub steppe landscape. Ecological Applications 17:934-947.
Hancock, P. 2001. Lesser Jacana—Toeing the line? Africa-birds & birding October/November:46-53.
Hasselquist, D., and B. Kempenaers. 2002. Parental care and adaptive brood sex ratio manipulation in birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 357:363-372.
Herkert, J. R. et al. 2003. Effects of prairie fragmentation on the nest success of breeding birds in the midcontinental United States. Conservation Biology 17:587-594.
Jenni, D. A. 1974. Evolution of polyandry in birds. American Zoologist. 14:129-144.
Jenni, D. A., and B. J. Betts. 1978. Sex differences in nest construction, incubation, and parental behaviour in the polyandrous American Jacana (Jacana spinosa). Animal. Behaviour 26:207-218.
Jenni, D. A., and G. Collier. 1972. Polyandry in the American Jacana (Jacana spinosa). The Auk 89:743-765.
Johnson, D. H. 2001. Habitat fragmentation effects on birds in grasslands and wetlands: a critique of our knowledge. Great Plains Research 11:211-231.
Kasumovic, M. M., H. L. Gibbs, B. E. Woolfenden, S. G. Sealy, and H. Nakamura. 2002. Primary sex-ratio variation in two brood parasitic birds: Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) and Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). The Auk 119:561-566.
Mace, T. R. 2000. Time budget and pair-bond dynamics in the Comb-crested Jacana Irediparra gallinacea: A Test of Hypothesis. EMU 100:31-41.
Marzal, A., F. d. Lope, C. Navarro, and A. P. Møller. 2005. Malarial parasites decrease reproductive success: an experimental study in a passerine bird. Oecologia 142: 541–545.
Morneaua, F., C. Lkpine, R. DCcarie, M.-A. Villardb, and J.-L. DesGranges. 1995. Reproduction of American robin (Turdus migratorius) in a suburban environment . Landscape and Urban Planning 32:55-62.
Murry, B. G. 1984. A demographic theory on the evolution of mating system as exemplified by birds. Evolutionary Biology 18:71-140.
Newhouse, M. J., P. P. Marra, and L. S. Johnson. 2008. Reproductive success of House Wrens in suburban and rural landscapes. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120:99-104.
Osborne, D. R. 1982. Replacement nesting and polyandry in the Wattled Jacana. . Wilson Bulletin 94:206-208.
Osborne, D. R., and G. R. Bourne. 1977. Breeding behavior and food habits of the Wattled Jacana. Condor 79:98-105.
Parejo, D., J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán, and J. M. Avilés. 2001. Breeding biology of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in southwest Spain. Bird Study 48:367-372.
Parsons, K. C. 2003. Reproductive success of wading birds using Phragmites marsh and upland nesting habitats. Estuaries and Coasts 26:596-601.
Powell, A. N., and C. L. Collier. 1998. Reproductive success of Belding''s Savannah Sparrows in a highly fragmented landscape. The Auk 115:508-513.
Powell, B. F., and R. J. Steidl. 2000. Nesting habitat and reproductive success of southwestern riparian birds. The Condor 102:823-831.
Ramachandran, N. K., and V. S. Vijayan. 1995. Breeding ecology of the bronzewinged (Metopidius indicus) and pheasant-tailed (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) Jacanas in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 92:322-334.
Renner, M., and L. S. Davis. 2001. Survival analysis of Little Penguin Eudyptula minor chicks on Motuara Island , New Zealand. Ibis 143:369-379.
Richner, H. 1991. The growth dynamics of sexually dimorphic birds and fisher''s sex ratio theory: does sex-specific growth contribute to balanced sex ratios? Functional Ecology 5:19-28.
Rodríguez, C., and J. Bustamante. 2003. The effect of weather on lesser kestrel breeding success: can climate change explain historical population declines? Journal of Animal Ecology 72:793-810.
Stephens, M. L. 1984. Maternal care and polyandry in the Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Chicago, Chicago.
Suratissa, D. M. 1997. Reproductive behavior and predator of Pheasant-tailed Jacana in Deberawewa tank at Tissamaharama. Drpt. Of Zoology, University of Colombo, Colombo.
Swinhoe, R. 1865. Letter to the editor. Ibis 1865:541-542.
Tarboton, W. R. 1992a. Aspects of the breeding biology of the African Jacana. Ostrich 63:141-157.
Tarboton, W. R. 1992b. Variability in African Jacana eggs and clutches. Ostrich 63:158-164.
Tarboton, W. R. 1995. Polyandry in the African Jacana: the roles of male dominance and rate of clutch loss. Ostrich 66:49-60.
Thong-aree, S., O. Khobkhet, and V. Lauhachinda. 1995. Breeding biology of Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus in central Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 43:289-302.
Trocmé, M. 2006. Habitat fragmentation due to linear transportation infrastructure: an overview of mitigation measures in Switzerland. Swiss Transport Research Conference March:15-17.
Urfi, A. J. 2003. Breeding ecology of birds: why do some species nest singly while others are colonial ? Resonance - journal of science education 8:22-32.
Verhulst, S., J. H. van Balen, and J. M. Tinbergen. 1995. Seasonal decline in reproductive success of the Great Tit: variation in time or quality? Ecology 76:2392-2403.
Watson, J. E. M., R. J. Whittaker, and D. Freudenberger. 2005. Bird community responses to habitat fragmentation: how consistent are they across landscapes? Journal of Biogeography 32:1353-1370.
Watson, M. L. 2005. Habitat fragmentation and the effects of roads on wildlife and habitats. Conservation Services Division, New Mexico Department of Game and Fish:1-18.
Weimerskirch, H., J. Lallemand, and J. Martin. 2005. Population sex ratio variation in a monogamous long-lived bird, the wandering albatross. Journal of Animal Ecology 74:285-291.
Whittingham, L. A., F. H. Sheldon, and S. T. Emlen. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of Jacana and its implications for morphologic and biogeographic evolution. The Auk 117:22-32.
中華民國野鳥學會. 1997. 中華民國野鳥學會鳥類資料庫: 水雉紀錄. 中華鳥會電腦檔.
中華民國野鳥學會. 2001. 台灣重要野鳥棲地手冊. 中華民國野鳥學會 台北: p.95-96.
王嘉雄等. 1991. 台灣野鳥圖鑑. 亞舍圖書有限公司. 台北: p.90-91.
台南鳥會. 2000. 台南地區水雉普查. http://bird.org.tw/report/water/2302-6.htm.
李壽先. 1989. 綠繡眼的生殖及非生殖季成群之研究. 私立東海大學生物研究所碩士論文.
林建利. 2005. 以粒線體DNA控制區之序列探討水雉之遺傳變異. 國立中山大學生物科學系碩士論文.
邱滿星. 2002. 水雉復育區棲地營造報告. 水雉復育年刊 創刊號: 15-17.
姚正得. 1998. 水雉史話—全興時代. 自然保育季刊 21: 28-33.
徐明敏、許勝發. 1996. 台南地區水雉現況的調查. 台南市野鳥學會. 台南.
翁義聰. 1997. 台南縣水雉保護與復育的探討. 第一屆鳥類研討會論文集. 台北.
翁榮炫、王建平. 1999. 水雉的生殖生物學研究. 未發表資料.
高瑋. 1993. 鳥類生態學. 東北師範大學出版社: p.50.
張萬福. 2001. 高速鐵路沿線施工期間野生動物監測計畫研究期末報告. 台灣區域發展研究院. 台中.
張萬福. 2002. 高速鐵路沿線施工期間野生動物監測計畫研究期中報告. 台灣區域發展研究院. 台中.

第二章參考文獻
Andersson, M. 1995. Evolution of reversed sex roles, sexual size dimorphism, and mating system in coucals (Centropodidae, Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 54:173-181.
Andersson, M. 2004. Social polyandry, parental investment, sexual selection, and evolution of reduced female gamete size. Evolution 58:24-34.
Andersson, M. 2005. Evolution of classical polyandry: three steps to female emancipation. Ethology 111:1-23.
Arnold, T. W. 1994. Effects of supplemental food on egg production in American Coots. The Auk 111:337-350.
Betts, B. J., and D. A. Jenni. 1991. Time budgets and adaptiveness polyandry in Northern Jacanas. Wilson Bulletin 103:578-597.
Butchart, S. H. M. 2000. Population structure and breeding system of the sex-role reversed, polyandrous Bronze-winged Jacana Metopidius indicus. IBIS 142:93-102.
Colwell, M. A., and L. W. Oring. 1998. Breeding biology of Wilson''s Phalarope in southcentral Saskatchewan. Wilson Bulletin 100:567-582.
Emlen, S. T., and L. W. Oring. 1997. Ecology, sexual selection and the evolution of mating system. Science 197:215-223.
Emlen, S. T., and P. H. Wrege. 2004. Size dimorphism, intrasexual competition, and sexual selection in Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana), a sex-role-reversed shorebird in Panama. The Auk 121:391-403.
Evers, D. C. 1994. Activity budgets of a marked Common Loon (Gavia immer) nesting population. Hydrobiologia 279-280:415-420.
Gibson, F. 1978. Ecological aspects of the time budget of the American Avocet. The American Midland Naturalist 99:65-82.
Goymann, W., A. Wittenzellner, and J. C. Wingfield. 2004. Competing females and caring males. Polyandry and sex-role reversal in African Black Coucals, Centropus grillii. Ethology 110:807-823.
Graul, W. D., S. R. Derrickson, and D. W. Mock. 1977. The evolution of avian polyandry. The American Naturalist 111:812-816.
Hamilton, A. J., I. R. Taylor, and G. Hepworth. 2002. Activity budgets of waterfowl (Anatidae) on a waste-stabilisation pond. Emu 102:171-179.
Hancock, P. 2001. Lesser Jacana. Toeing the line? . Africa Birds and Birding 6:46-53.
Jenni, D. A. 1974. Evolution of polyandry in birds. American Zoologist 14:129-144.
Jonsson, J. E., and A. D. Afton. 2006. Different time and energy budgets of Lesser Snow Geese in rice-prairies and coastal marshes in southwest Louisiana. Waterbirds 29:451-458.
Kosztolányi, A., T. Székely, I. C. Cuthill, K. T. Yilmaz, and S. Berberoğlu. 2006. Ecological constraints on breeding system evolution: the influence of habitat on brood desertion in Kentish Plover. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:257-265.
Lenington, S. 1980. Bi-parental care in Killdeer: an adaptive hypothesis. Wilson Bulletin 92:8-20.
Mace, T. R. 2000. Time budget and pair-bond dynamics in the Comb-crested Jacana Irediparra gallinacean: a test of hypothesis. Emu 100:31-41.
Maynard, S. J. 1977. Parental investment: a prospective analysis. Animal Behaviour 25:1-9.
McKinney, R. A., and S. R. McWiliams. 2005. A new model to estimate daily energy expenditure for wintering waterfowl. Wilson Bulletin 117:44-55.
Osborne, D. R. 1982. Replacement nesting and polyandry in the Wattled Jacana. Wilson Bulletin 94:206-208.
Osborne, D. R., and G. R. Bourne. 1977. Breeding behavior and food habits of the Wattled Jacana. Condor 79:98-105.
Owens, I. P. F. 2002. Male only care and classical polyandry in birds: phylogeny, ecology and sex differences in remating opportunities. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B 357:283-293.
Pechacek, P., K. G. Michalek, H. Winkler, and D. Blomqvist. 2006. Classical polyandry found in the Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus. Journal of Ornithology 147:112-114.
Pitelka, F. A., R. T. Holmes, and J. S. F. MacLean. 1974. Ecology and evolution of social organization in Arctic Sandpipers. American Zoologist 14:185-182-184.
Ramachandran, N. K. 1998. Activity patterns and time budgets of the Pheasant-tailed (Hydrophaslanus chirurgus) and Bronzewinged (Metopidius indicus) Jacanas. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 95:234-245.
Rossmanith, E., V. Grimm, N. Blaum, and F. Jeltsch. 2006. Behavioural flexibility in the mating system buffers population extinction: lessons from the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Picoides minor. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:540-548.
Székely, T., and J. D. Reynolds. 1995. Evolutionary transitions in parental care in shorebirds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 262:57-64.
Thong-aree, S., O. Khobkhet, V. Lauhachinda, and S. Pong-Umpai. 1995. Breeding biology of Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus in central Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of The Siam Society 43:289-302.
Wang, J.-P., Y.-T. Ueng, and J.-J. Perng. 1998. Water quality, aquatic plankton and insects in the habitat of Hydrophasianus chirurgus. . Essays of the 4th. Conference on coastal wetlands ecology and conservation 1998:8-23 (in chinese).
Wesolowski, T. 1994. On the origin of parental care and the early evolution of male and female parental roles in birds. The American Naturalist 143:39-58.
Whitfield, D. P., and P. S. Tomkovich. 1996. Mating system and timing of breeding in Holarctic waders. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 57:277-290.
Wiktander, U., O. Olsson, and S. G. Nilsson. 2000. Parental care and social mating system in the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopus minor. Journal of Avian Biology 31:447-456.

第三章參考文獻
Alexander, R. D. 1974. The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and System 5:325-383.
Avile´s, J. M. 2004. Egg rejection by Iberian Azure-winged Magpies Cyanopica cyanus in the absence of brood parasitism. Journal of Avian Biology 35:295-200.
Benson, D. P. 2002. Low extra-pair paternity in White-tailed Ptarmigan. Condor 104:192-197.
Birkhead, T. R. 1998. Sperm competition in birds. Reviews of Reproduction 3:123-129.
Brown, K. M. 2000. Adoption and infanticide: an evolutionary arms race between disadvantaged offspring and foster parents. Animal Behaviour 60:F17-F20.
Butchart, S. H. M. 1999. Sexual conflicts and copulation patterns in polyandrous Bronze-winged Jacana (Metopidius indicus). Behaviour 136:443-468.
Butchart, S. H. M., N. Seddon, and J. M. M. Ekstrom. 1999. Yelling for sex: harem males compete for female access in Bronze-winged Jacanas. Animal Behaviour 57:637-646.
Chardine, J. W., and R. D. Morros. 1983. Herring Gull males eat their own eggs. Wilson Bulletin 95:477-478.
Chen, T.-C., Y.-S. Lin, and T.-S. Ding. 2008. Time budget of polyandrous Pheasant-Tailed Jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) during breeding Season in Taiwan. Taiwania 53:107-115.
Claude, J., B. Isles, and P. J. . 1986. House Wren nest-destroying behavior. Condor 88:190-193.
Crook, J. R., and W. M. Shields. 1985. Sexually selected infanticide by adult male Barn Swallows. Animal Behaviour 33:754-761.
Dale, J., R. Montgomerie, D. Michaud, and P. Boag. 1999. Frequency and timing of extrapair fertilization in polyandrous red phalarope. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 46:50-56.
Davies, N. B. 1983. Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in Dunnocks. Nature 302:334-336.
Dickeman, M. 1975. Demographic consequences of infanticide in man. Annual Review of Ecology and System 6:107-137.
Emlen, S. T., N. J. Demong, and D. J. Emlen. 1989. Experimental induction of infanticide in female Wattled Jacanas. the auk 106:1-7.
Emlen, S. T., and P. H. Wrege. 2004. Size dimorphism, intrasexual competition, and sexual selection in Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana), a sex-role-reversed shorebird in Panama. the Auk 121:391-403.
Emlen, S. T., P. H. Wrege, and M. S. Webster. 1998. Cuckoldry as a cost of polyandry in the sex-rolereversed Wattled Jacana, Jacana jacana. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 265:2359-2364.
Freed, L. A. 1987. Prospective infanticide and protection of genetic paternity in tropical House Wrens. The American Naturalist 130:948-954.
Garvin, J. C., S. J. Reynolds, and S. J. Schoech. 2002. Conspecific egg predation by Florida Scrub-Jays. Wilson Bulletin 114:136-139.
Gilbert, W. M., P. M. Nolan, A. M. Stoehr, and G. E. Hill. 2005. Filial cannibalism at a House Finch nest. Wilson Bulletin 117:413-415.
Goldstein, H., D. Eisikovitz, and Y.-T. Yoram. 1986. Infanticide in the Palestine Sunbird. Condor 88:528-529.
Haig, S. M., T. R. Mace, and T. D. Mullins. 2003. Parentage and relatedness in polyandrous Combcrested Jacanas using ISSRs. Journal of Heredity 94:302-309.
Hansson, B., S. Bensch, and D. Hasselquist. 1997. Infanticide in Great Reed Warblers: secondary females destroy eggs of primary females. . Animal Behaviour 54:297-304.
Hotta, M. 1994. Infanticide in Little Swifts taking over costly nests. Animal Behaviour 47:491-493.
Hrdy, S. B. 1979. Infanticide among animals: a review, classification, and examination of the implications for the reproductive strategies of females. Ethology and Sociobiology 1:13-40.
Kermott, L. H., L. S. Johnson, and H. Brinton. 1990. Brood adoption and apparent infanticide in a north-temperate House Wren population. Wilson Bulletin 102:333-336.
Koenig, W. D. 1990. Opportunity of parentage and nest destruction in polygynandrous Acorn Woodpeckers, Melanerpes formidvorus. Behavioral Ecology 1:55-61.
Leonard, J. L. 2001. Cloacal inspection or pecking in Allen''s Hummingbird. West Birds 32:91-92.
Lifjeld, J. T., T. Slagsvold, and H. Ellegren. 1998. Experimentally reduced paternity affects paternal effort and reproductive success in Pied Flycatchers. Animal Behaviour 55:319-329.
Loftin, R. W., and D. Roberson. 1983. Infanticide by a Purple Martin. Wilson Bulletin 95:146-148.
Lombardo, M. P., H. W. Power, P. C. Stouffer, L. C. Romagnano, and A. S. Hoffenberg. 1989. Egg removal and intraspecific brood parasitism in the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24:217-223.
Macedo, R. H. F., and C. A. Bianchi. 1997. When birds go bad: circumstantial evidence for infanticide in the communal South American Guira Cuckoo. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 9:45-54.
Macedo, R. H. F., and C. Melo. 1999. Confirmation of infanticide in the communally breeding Guira Cuckoo. the Auk 116:847-851.
Mallory, F. F., and R. J. Brooks. 1978. Infanticide and other reproductive strategies in the collared lemming, Dicrostonyx groenlandicus. Nature 273:144-146.
Moksnes, A., and P.-A. Elvertø. 2006. Host responses against natural and experimental conspecific brood parasitism in the Starling Sturnus vulgaris. Ornis Fennica 83:139-144.
Møller, A. P. 2004. Rapid temporal change in frequency of infanticide in a passerine bird associated with change in population density and body condition. Behavioral Ecology 15:462-468.
Oring, L. W., R. C. Fleischer, J. M. Reed, and K. E. Marsden. 1992. Cuckoldry through stored sperm in the sequentially polyandrous spotted sandpiper. Nature 359:631-633.
Osorio-Beristain, M., and H. Drummond. 2001. Male boobies expel eggs when paternity is in doubt. Behavioral Ecology 12:16-21.
Palomino, J. J., M. Martı´n-Vivaldi, M. Soler, and J. J. Soler. 1998. Females are responsible for ejection of cuckoo eggs in the Rufous Bush Robin. Animal Behaviour 56:131-136.
Parkes, M. L. 2005. Inter-nest infanticide in Ardeids. Waterbirds 28:256-257.
Peer, B. D., and S. G. Sealy. 2003. Conspecific brood parasitism and egg rejection in Great-tailed Grackles. Journal of Avian Biology 31:271-277.
Pierotti, R. 1991. Infanticide versus adoption: an intergenerational conflict. The American Naturalist 138:1140-1158.
Pinxten, R., M. Eens, and R. F. Verheyen. 1991. Response of male starlings to experimental intraspecific brood parasitism. Animal Behaviour 42:1028-1030.
Quinn, J. S., L. A. Whittingham, and R. D. Morris. 1994. Infanticide in skimmers and terns: side effects of territorial attacks or inter-generational conflict? Animal Behaviour 47:363-367.
Ramos, J. A. 2003. Intraspecific aggression by Roseate Tern adults on chicks in a tropical colony. Waterbirds 26:160-165.
Robertson, R. J., and B. J. Stutchbury. 1988. Experimental evidence for sexually selected infanticide in Tree Swallows. Animal Behaviour 36:749-753.
Romagnano, L., M. P. Lombardo, P. C. Stouffer, and H. W. Power. 1986. Suspected infanticide in the Starling. Condor 88:530-531.
Sherman, P. T. 2003. Intergroup infanticide in cooperatively polyandrous White-winged Trumpeters (Psophia leucoptera). . Wilson Bulletin 115:339-342.
Shimada, T., K. Kuwabara, S. Yamakoshi, and T. Shichi. 2002. A case of infanticide in the Spotbilled Duck in circumstances of high breeding density. . Journal of Ethology 20:87-88.
Smith, H. G., L. Wennerberg, and T. v. Schantz. 1996a. Sperm competition in the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris): an experimental study of mate switching. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 263:797-901.
Smith, H. G., L. Wennerberg, and T. v. Schantz. 1996b. Adoption or infanticide: options of replacement males in the European Starling. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38:191-197.
Stephens, M. L. 1982. Mate takeover and possible infanticide by a female Northern Jacana (Jacana spinosa). Animal Behaviour 30:1253-1254.
Stouffer, P. C., E. D. Kennedy, and H. W. Power. 1987. Recognition and removal of intraspecific parasite eggs by Starlings. Animal Behaviour 35:1583-1584.
Taylor, S. S., M. L. Leonard, and D. J. Boness. 2001. Aggressive nest intrusions by male Humboldt Penguins. Condor 103:162-165.
Thong-aree, S., O. Khobkhet, V. Lauhachinda, and S. Pong-umpai. 1995. Breeding biology of Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus in central Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the SIAM Society 43:289-302.
Valle, C. A. 1994. Parental role-reversed polyandry and paternity. the Auk 111:476-478.
Veiga, J. P. 1990. Infanticide by male and female House Sparrows. Animal Behaviour 39:496-502.
Whittingham, L. A., and P. O. Dunn. 1998. Male parental effort and paternity in a variable mating system. Animal Behaviour 55:629-640.
Zenone, P. G., M. E. Sims, and C. J. Erickson. 1979. Male Ring Dove behavior and the defense of genetic paternity. The American Naturalist 114:615-626.
Zielin´ski, P. 2002. Brood reduction and parental infanticide: are the White Stork Ciconia ciconia and the Black Stork C. nigra exceptional? Acta Ornithologica 37:113-119.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔