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研究生:劉純瑀
研究生(外文):Chun-yu Liu
論文名稱:被遺忘的一群:蜜雪兒克里夫小說中的賤民角色
論文名稱(外文):The Neglected Ones: Subaltern Characters in Michelle Cliff’s Novels
指導教授:白瑞梅白瑞梅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Amie Parry
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:賤民消極性抵抗壓迫
外文關鍵詞:passive resistanceoppressionsubaltern
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本論文主要在檢視蜜雪兒克里夫兩部半自傳小說中的四個賤民角色,而他們在其他評論中經常被忽略,或是被視作次要的角色,因此在此論文中將把這些角色集合在一起並詳細探討書中呈現的生活經驗。這四個角色的背景和社會地位差異極大,而他們遭逢的剝削與困境也不相同;也就是說,使他們成為賤民階級的因素也都是不同的。而這點顯示出賤民這一範疇其實並不是一個固定的團體,而是有各種不同的組成份子,也有差異性,甚至是衝突。史碧瓦克曾提出「賤民無法發聲」的主張,因為在第一世界的知識份子認為自己能為賤民們代言,而在這個過程中,賤民真正的聲音和主張就被知識份子挪用,最終消失不見。然而,詳細的去檢視小說中這四個賤民角色的經歷,我們將會發現他們的聲音在被挪用或取代之前,早已消失、被忽視、甚至被遺忘。這種困境的原因在於他們所經歷的剝削和壓迫使得他們不想,或不願意發聲,而選擇了沉默或甚至是與社會中各種支配性的力量共謀的立場。但這種沉默或是共謀卻是他們自己對於殖民主義、階級、性別或其他意識型態的反抗方式,即使這些方式看似消極或順從。換句話說,這些角色不僅揭露了即使在賤民的群體中也可能存在著差異與衝突,也帶出了消極性抵抗的可能性,並且問題化了對於反抗運動的一般看法。也就是說這種消極性反抗提出了相對於革命這類反抗運動的另一種可能。然而如果評論者或讀者忽略了關於這四個角色的重要細節,那麼也可能會陷入知識性暴力的陷阱中。
This thesis is focused on life experiences of the four characters that can be categorized into the subaltern in Michelle Cliff’s two semi-autobiographical novels, No Telephone to Heaven and Abeng, who are often neglected in other critics’ analyses of the novels. These four characters, Christopher, Bobby, Zoe and Kitty, are different in their backgrounds and social status, and the exploitation and predicament they have suffered are not the same, either. That is, what makes them subaltern is different, and this suggests that the category of the subaltern is not a single or fixed organization, but there could be dissimilarities, contradictions and also conflicts. As Gayatri Spivak has claimed that “the subaltern cannot speak,” because their voices will be appropriated by the first world scholars who think they can represent the subaltern people. Consequently, the subaltern people’s claims and voices are lost, and thus they cannot speak. However, by examining the experiences of these four subaltern characters together and in detail, it would be seen that before the subaltern’s voice could be appropriated, it is lost, forgotten or neglected. The reason is that the predicaments caused by exploitations and oppressions have made them do not wish to speak, but choose to be silent or even to conform to the dominant powers instead of voicing their claims. Nevertheless, this kind of silence and conformity is their own way of resistance to the injustices produced by colonialism, class, gender and other ideologies, even though it seems to be passive or submissive. In other words, these characters not only reveal that there could be dissimilarities and even conflicts in the subaltern group, but also bring out the possibility of a passive kind of resistance and therefore problematize the general notion of resistance as the revolutionary action. However, if the critics neglected or overlooked these trivial but important aspects of these four characters, they might fall into the trap of epistemic violence in the critical level.
Abstract i
Acknowledgements iii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Chapter Two: Reading Christopher and Bobby: Oppression, Violence and Traumatic Experiences 14
Chapter Three: Zoe’s Consciousness: A Different Kind of Resistance 37
Chapter Four: The Problematic and Limitation of Resistance: Kitty Savage as an In-between Character 55
Chapter Five: Conclusion 70
Works Cited 78
Adisa, Opal Palmer. “Journey into Speech—A Writer Between Two Worlds: An Interview with Michelle Cliff.” African American Review 28.2 (Summer 1994): 273-281.

Aegerter, Lindsay Pentolfe. “Michelle Cliff and the Paradox of Privilege.” College English 59.8 (1997): 898-915.

Agosto, Noraida. Michelle Cliff’s Novels: Piecing the Tapstry of Memory and History. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

Bost, Suzanne. “Fluidity without Postmodernism: Michelle Cliff and the ‘Tragic Mulatta’ Tradition.” African American Review 32.4 (Winter 1998): 673-689.

Cliff, Michelle. Abeng. 1984. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

---. No Telephone to Heaven. 1987. New York: Plume, 1996.

Edmondson, Belinda. “Race, Privilege, and the Politics of (Re)Writing History: An Analysis of The Novels of Michelle Cliff.” Callallo 16.1 (Winter, 1993): 180-191.

Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Ed. And trans. Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. New York: International Publishers, 1971.

Guha, Ranajit. “On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India.” Selected Subaltern Studies. New York: Oxford UP, 1988. 37-44.

Schwartz, Meryl F. “An Interview with Michelle Cliff.” Contemporary Literature 34.4 (Winter 1993): 595-619.

Sethuraman, Ramchandran. “Evidence-Cum-Witness: Subaltern History, violence, and the (De)Formation of Nation in Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven.” Modern Fiction Studies 43.1 (Spring 1997): 249-287

She, Chia-ling. “A Question of Representations: Reading the Intellectual and the Subaltern in No Telephone to Heaven.” MA Thesis. NCU, 2002.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. "Can the Subaltern Speak?" The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Gen. ed. Vincent B. Leitch. New York and London: Norton, 2001. 2197-2208.

---. A Critigue of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present. Cambrige, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1999.
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