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研究生:嚴文懋
研究生(外文):Wen-mao Yen
論文名稱:衛星資料探討台南都市發展在熱島效應及區域降雨型態之影響
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of urban heat island intensity and it impact on regional precipitation over Tainan city in Taiwan
指導教授:林唐煌林唐煌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tang-Huang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:太空科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:天文及太空科學學類
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:衛星遙測熱島效應不透水層鋪面都市降雨型態
外文關鍵詞:Urban heat island effectPrecipitationImpervious surface area
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台南是台灣最早發展的城市,隨著人口的增長,使得城市的規模日益擴大,都市的熱島效應也因此增強。先前的研究指出雷雨所造成降雨的地區可能會受到都市熱島效應的影響而有所改變,尤其在夏季時,都市地區的高溫現象會強化地區的熱對流系統,而改變地形效應之降雨和地區。為了探討都市發展對於區域降雨之影響,本研究將分析都會區之不透水層鋪面比率(Impervious Surface Area;ISA)與熱島效應(Urban Heat Island;UHI)強度間之關係,進而探討都市熱島強度在都會區降雨型態之影響。
首先利用Landsat衛星資料提供的可見光與熱紅外波段資料分別進行各年份地物之分類與ISA值之計算,做為都市化的指標,以及地表溫度之反演與UHI強度之估算。其次則使用降雨的網格資料與再分析風場探討不同風場對於熱島效應降雨之影響。最後使用中央氣象局1993年至2012年地面測站的降雨觀測資料,分析整體降雨的趨勢與變化,並結合UHI的變化探討其間之相關性。
結果顯示,台南區與新市區之ISA分別以每年約0.012與0.016的速度增加;UHI則分別以每年約0.092℃與0.21℃的強度增溫。另外,UHI與ISA的相關性很高,尤其在新市與台南區皆大於0.8,表示都市的發展確實增強了熱島效應之強度。研究也指出在都市測站午後雷雨的降雨量有增加的趨勢,而山區測站則受都市熱島效應的影響,而相對減少,後續仍需藉由模式進行深入之探討。

Tainan is the oldest city in Taiwan and the increasing population density leads her to be a big city, as well as intensify the urban heat-island effect. The previous researches indicate that the precipitation could be influenced by the intense urban heat-island effect, such as the thunderstorm for example. In summertime, urban heat can generate the convection can be caused from the heat surface of urban area, and then reduce the rainfall rate from terrain lifting effect. As a result, the regional precipitation pattern could be altered, especially during the summertime. In order to have better understanding the impact of urbanization on the precipitation, impervious surface area (ISA) as the index of city urbanization associated with the intensity of urban heat island effect (UHI) are used in this study.
Landsat data is utilized in this study since the visible and thermal Infrared spectral bands can be provided for calculating the data of classification and UHI at the same time. After the land cover type classification, we can derive the value of ISA around the areas of Tainan city and the changes along with the time. Then using TCCIP precipitation and ECMWF wind field data to find the precipitation distribution in different wind field. Final, the rainfall data during July and August from 1993 to 2012 which exclude the data in typhoon days from Center Weather Bureau (CWB) over Tainan city are collected to investigate rainfall trends in each station and examine the correlation between ISA and precipitation.
The result indicated that high ISA and UHI value was locating in urban area. Following the urbanization, UHI increased along with the ISA during the past 17 years and there have high correlation between UHI and ISA. The result also indicate that the rainfall trends increasing in urban area and decreasing in mountain area because of Urban Heat Island obstruct the water vapor which is bring from ocean to mountain area.

摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.3研究試區 5
1.4研究目的與流程 6
第二章 資料蒐集 7
2.1資料特性 7
2.2 Landsat 5 與 7 衛星影像資料 8
2.3 TCCIP雨量資料 9
2.4 ECMWF ERA-Interim 再分析資料 10
2.5中央氣象局測站資料 10
2.6 JTWC颱風最佳路徑 11
第三章 研究方法 12
3.1地物分類 12
3.2地表不透水層鋪面比例之估算 14
3.3地表溫度反演 15
3.4都市熱島效應強度 16
3.5中央氣象局氣溫與雨量資料篩選 17
第四章 研究結果 19
4.1地物分類與都市發展時空變化分析 19
4.1.1地物分類 19
4.1.2不透水層鋪面時空變化分析 21
4.1.3台南區與新市區ISA逐年變化 22
4.2台南地區都市發展與熱島效應 22
4.2.1地表溫度 22
4.2.2測站溫度 23
4.2.3都市熱島強度時空分布 24
4.2.4都市熱島強度與不透水層鋪面 25
4.3午後熱對流降雨案例 25
4.4風場與台南區域降雨特性 26
4.5降雨分布與都市熱島之時空變化分析 28
第五章 結論與未來展望 31
參考文獻 34

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