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研究生:戴維莎
研究生(外文):Thavisha Erandinie Dharmawardena
論文名稱:利用冷塵埃的熱輻射追蹤主序後星質量 流失歷史
論文名稱(外文):Tracing Historic Mass Loss from Evolved Stars with Thermal Emission from Cold Dust
指導教授:高仲明
指導教授(外文):Prof. Chung-Ming Ko
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:天文研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:天文及太空科學學類
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:189
中文關鍵詞:進化的恆星散熱粉塵質量損失率亞毫米波
外文關鍵詞:Evolved starsThermal dust emissionMass losssub-mm
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主序後星在宇宙塵埃的生命週期中扮演關鍵角色。由於主序後星數量眾多, 因此能有
效率的透過強恆星風和超新星噴發其核心中合成的原料,並以此提供星際介質中的重
元素。在這篇論文中,我研究了主序後星的質量流失,深入研究並探索它們過去一生
中的塵埃質量流失事件。主序後星的典型研究方法是僅考慮當前的質量流失,或假設
它們在其生命週期中經歷近似穩定的質量流失。塵埃從恆星中心離開時會冷卻,可以
利用塵埃的熱輻射有效地追其質量流失歷程。本論文使用Herschel / PACS遠紅外望遠
鏡(波長70微米、100微米和160微米)和JCMT / SCUBA-2次毫米波望遠鏡(450微米
和850微米)來觀測。這兩組觀測結果非常強大,可追主序後星周圍包層的徑向變化。
本論文透過觀察研究表面亮度、溫度、塵埃質量- 柱密度和徑向的塵埃輻射率光譜指
數中的特徵,確定了銀河系主序後星取樣的質量流失變化。將這些結果與恆定流出模
型的預測進行比較,本論文發現此兩種情景決定的總塵埃質量間有顯著偏差。因此進
一步顯示了質量流失變化的影響不容忽視。本論文利用輻射轉移模型確定了唧筒座U星
的分離殼層複雜性,並指出進一步研究的需要。兩個著名主序後星IRC + 10216和鯨魚
座o 星的次毫米波週期的分析顯示,可能可使用主序後星的次毫米波光變曲線來有效研
究它們包層內部的塵埃形成和分解性質。IRC + 10216顯示可見光和次毫米觀測的偏移
相位約為3/4。使用模型預測和過去的報告,顯示恆星脈衝和塵埃形成/分解之間的關
係。這篇論文包含了位於銀河系及麥哲倫雲星系,在中紅外波段觀測到但遠紅外波段
沒有觀測到的主序後星。由Herschel HERITAGE普查計劃,波長為100微米的調查,可
以對這些主序後星中冷塵埃的遠紅外波段成份存在與否進行統計研究。本論文成功提
出由最高質量流失率來源組成的三疊檢測,展示了堆疊法的優點。本論文展示結構的
變化率及質量流失歷程,並強調這些在銀河系及之外的天體,分析研究其塵埃產生的
重要性。
Evolved stars play a key role in the life cycle of dust in the universe. Through strong
winds and supernovae they inject the material reprocessed in their cores to the interstellar
medium, replenishing the interstellar medium with heavy elements. As evolved stars are
so numerous they are extremely eective in this role. In this thesis we study this mass loss
delving deep into their past, exploring dust mass-loss events which occurred throughout
their lifetime as evolved stars. The typical treatment of evolved stars has been to only
account for present day mass loss or assume they are quasi-stable undergoing constant
mass loss throughout their lifetime. Historic mass loss can be eectively traced using
thermal emission from the dust which cools down as it moves away from the central star.
We exploit Herschel/PACS far-infrared (70 m; 100 m and 160 m) and JCMT/SCUBA-
2 sub-millimetre (450 m and 850 m) observations to study this historic mass loss.
These two sets of observations are especially powerful, tracing the radial variation in
the circumstellar envelopes of evolved stars. We establish the presence of variations in
mass loss for a sample of Milky Way evolved stars by studying features observed in
surface-brightness, temperature, dust mass-column density and spectral index of dust
emissivity radial proles. By comparing these results to predictions for a constant-out
ow
model we nd signicant deviations between the total dust masses determined for the
two scenarios, demonstrating that the eect of mass-loss variations cannot be ignored.
We determine the complexities of the detached shell of U Ant with the aid of radiative
transfer modelling, prompting the need for further study at higher angular resolution.
The analysis of the sub-mm periodicity of IRC+10216 and o Ceti, two well-known evolved
stars, shows that it may be possible to use sub-mm light curves of evolved stars to study
the nature of dust formation/destruction in their inner envelope eectively. The optical and sub-mm light curves of IRC+10216 shows an oset in phase of 3=4. Using radiative
transfer modelling as well as ndings in literature we attribute the sub-mm variability and
phase lag to both the relationship between stellar pulse and dust formation/destruction
cycle as well as a second unknown mechanism which needs to be narrowed down in the
future. Moving on from the Milky Way to the Magellanic clouds we combine cutouts of
evolved stars identied in the mid-infrared but not detected in the far-IR. The cutouts are
generated from the Herschel HERITAGE survey at 100 m allowing a statistical study of
the existence or absence of a far-IR component as a result of cold dust in these evolved
stars. We successfully produce detections for three stacks comprised of the highest massloss
rate sources, showcasing the merits of the stacking method. With this thesis we
emphasise the variations in structure and hence historic mass loss of evolved stars. By
doing so we highlight the importance of including these variations in studies which include
dust production by evolved stars in the future.
電子論文授權書Authorisation of the Electronic Thesis i
指導教授推薦書Recommendation Letter from the Thesis Advisor iii
試委員審定書Verification from the Oral Examination Committee v
英文摘要Abstract in English vii
中文摘要Abstract in Chinese ix
誌謝Acknowledgements xi
出版物清單List of Publications xiii
List of Figures xix
List of Tables xxi
1 Introduction 1
2 Extended Dust Emission from Nearby Evolved Stars 11
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2 Observations and Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2.1 Source selection and SCUBA-2 observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2.2 SCUBA-2 data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.3 IRC+10216 (CW Leo) and o Cet (Mira) SCUBA-2 data reduction . 18
2.2.4 Herschel PACS data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3 Extended Dust Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.1 Surface-brightness pro_les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.2 Spectral Energy Distribution _ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.1 Extent and ux levels of the thermal dust emission . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.2 Radial variation in dust properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.4.2.1 Radial Variation in _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.4.2.2 Temperature Radial Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4.2.3 Radial variation in the dust column density . . . . . . . . 33
2.4.3 Notes on selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.4.3.1 NML Cyg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.4.3.2 IRC+10216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.4.3.3 U Hya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4.4 Dust mass-loss Rates and Dust-to-Gas Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3 The Nearby Evolved Stars Survey: I. JCMT/SCUBA-2 Sub-millimetre
detection of the detached shell of U Antliae 49
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.2 Observations and Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.1 Removing CO(3-2) Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2.2 Archival Herschel observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.3 Analysis and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.3.1 Surface-brightness Pro_les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.3.2 Shell Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.3.2.1 Radial point-to-point Spectral Energy Distribution Fitting 60
3.3.2.2 Full Radiative Transfer Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.4.1 Surface-brightness emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.4.2 Radial variation in dust properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.3 Self-consistent dust radiative transfer modelling . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4 Sub-mm Variability of IRC+10216 and o Ceti 77
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.2 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.2.1 Observations and Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.2.2 PSF Photometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.3 Results and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.3.1 Light Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.3.2 Sub-mm Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4.1 Periodograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4.2 Periods and Phase folded Light Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.5 Origins the Sub-mm Variability and Phase-lag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.5.1 Light Travel Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.5.2 Molecular Line Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.5.3 Cycle of Dust Formation and Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.5.3.1 Radiative Transfer Modelling of IRC+10216 . . . . . . . . 92
4.5.4 Free-free emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5 Stacking analysis of the Herschel/HERITAGE data to statistically study
far-IR dust emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud 99
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.2 Observations and Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.2.1 Removal of Contaminants and Selection of Stacking Categories . . . 102
5.2.2 Generating Cutouts and Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.2.3 PSF Photometry and GRAMS predicted fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.3 Preliminary Results and Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.3.1 Photometric Results and Comparison to Model Predictions . . . . . 106
5.3.2 8 vs. 8
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