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研究生:曾心玫
研究生(外文):Hsin-mei Tseng
論文名稱:多層次探討心理賦權如何透過中介機制促進員工創造力?
指導教授:李憶萱李憶萱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-hsuan Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:個人心理賦權團隊心理賦權創意自我效能內在動機組織創新氣氛員工創造力階層線性模型(HLM)
外文關鍵詞:individual psychological empowermentteam empowermentcreative self-efficacyintrinsic motivationcreative organizational climateHierarchical linear modeling (HLM)
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現今的社會以服務業為導向,為了更進一步提高人們的生活水準與滿足顧客的需求,有賴於服務業的創新。然而,組織的創新需要透過員工創造力的表現。服務業的第一線員工與顧客間有最直接的互動,當他們面對工作時,需要擁有較大的自主權作出決策,進而增加服務傳遞的效率與促進員工創造力。因此,本研究試圖回答:服務業員工「心理賦權如何透過中介機制進而促進員工創造力?」。服務業多半以團隊工作方式運作,因個人與團隊認知心理賦權的程度可能不同,因此,本研究採取過去學者的建議將心理賦權區分成個人與團隊心理賦權,進而探討對於員工創造力的影響,並同時探討兩變數間的關鍵中介機制。過去影響創造力的因素不僅來自個人特質,也會受到外在環境的影響,本研究整理過去影響創造力的因素,並將之分成個人與組織層次,個人層次中介機制放入創意自我效能與內在動機;組織層次中介機制放入組織創新氣氛愈高,並採用階層線性模型進行跨層次整體模型的驗證。本研究貢獻分為三部分,首先,將心理賦權分成個人層次與組織層次,同時探討對於個人層次員工創造力的影響,有別於過去研究多以單一層次的角度,探討個人心理賦權對於個人行為與態度的影響或團隊心理賦權對於團隊表現的影響。第二、本研究提出關鍵中介機制,並證實個人或團隊心理賦權會透過內在動機與創意自我效能中介,進而促進員工創造力,而團隊心理賦權會透過組織創新氣氛中介,進而促進員工創造力。此研究結果,有別於過去對於心理賦權影響創造力的研究僅針對兩變數間單一關係探討更具有整合性,將心理賦權影響員工創造力的研究往前推進。第三、採用階層線性模型對整體架構進行跨層次分析與探討,可以有效且精確評估影響員工創造力的變異,並使用多層次中介效果檢驗原理,將整體模型投入HLM進行驗證,藉以減少分析的誤差。
Nowadays, our society is a service-oriented society. It relies on the service innovation to improve the living standard and meet customers’ needs. Moreover, the innovation of an organization relies on the employee creativity. There is a directive interaction between frontline service employees and customers. When facing customers with quite diverse needs, frontline service employees need autonomy to make a decision to increase the effectiveness of service delivery and improve employees’ creativity. Most service organizations focus on organizational work teams. Psychological empowerment at the individual level focuses on individual’s perceptions, while that at the team level focus on shared perceptions among team members. It is only by explicitly evaluating both levels that researchers would begin to construct a complete and accurate scope. Therefore, this study divides psychological empowerment into individual and team psychological empowerment, and concurrently discusses the influence on employees creativity with mediators between psychological empowerment and employee creativity. Personal characteristics and contextual environment have been acknowledged as crucial factors which pose a significant influence on employee creativity. Among these factors, we adopt creativity self–efficacy and intrinsic motivation as mediators at the individual level and creative organizational climate at the team level and use hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to verify the cross-level model. Three contributions are made by our study. First, we divide the psychological empowerment into the individual level and team level, and discuss their influence on employee creativity. This study differs from previous studies which merely use a single-level perspective to discuss the influence of individual psychological empowerment on individual behavior or the influence of team empowerment on team's performance. Second, key mediators are proposed and justified to be dominant. A Significant influence of individual or team psychological empowerment on employee creativity through mediators of intrinsic motivation and creativity self-efficacy are confirmed; a great influence of team empowerment on employee creativity through the mediator of creative organizational climate is also verified. Unlike other researchers only discuss for a single relationship between psychological empowerment and employee creativity, the results derived from the multi-correlated considerations are more integrated. Third, we use HLM to discuss the cross-level framework and verify our hypotheses. HLM has a robust capability to effectively and accurately analyze the variation of employee creativity and verify multilevel mediation.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
一、 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景 1
1.2. 研究目的 1
1.3. 研究價值與預期貢獻 4
二、 文獻回顧 5
2.1. 心理賦權與員工創造力 5
2.1.1. 個人心理賦權與員工創造力 7
2.1.2. 團隊心理賦權與員工創造力 8
2.2. 個人心理賦權、創意自我效能與員工創造力 9
2.3. 個人心理賦權、內在動機與員工創造力 10
2.4. 團隊心理賦權、組織創新氣氛與員工創造力 11
2.5. 團隊心理賦權、創意自我效能與員工創造力 12
2.6. 團隊心理賦權、內在動機與員工創造力 13
2.7. 研究架構 14
三、 研究方法 15
3.1. 研究對象與抽樣方式 15
3.1.1. 研究對象 15
3.1.2. 樣本發放 16
3.1.3. 問卷設計 16
3.2. 變項衡量方式 16
3.2.1. 心理賦權 16
3.2.2. 創意自我效能 19
3.2.3. 內在動機 20
3.2.4. 組織創新氣氛 21
3.2.5. 員工創造力 23
3.2.6. 控制變數 24
3.3. 資料分析法 24
四、 資料分析 27
4.1. 敘述統計分析 27
4.2. 相關分析 30
4.3. 信度分析 30
4.4. 建構效度分析 31
4.4.1. 收斂效度 31
4.4.2. 區別效度 32
4.5. 共同方法變異 33
4.6. 階層式模型分析 34
4.6.1. 變數之群間與群內變異成份分析 (ICC1、ICC2、rwg) 34
4.6.2. 虛無模型 35
4.6.3. 個人心理賦權與員工創造力之關係 35
4.6.4. 團隊心理賦權與員工創造力之關係 36
4.6.5. 創意自我效能在個人心理賦權與員工創造力之中介關係 36
4.6.6. 內在動機在個人心理賦權與員工創造力之中介關係 38
4.6.7. 組織創新氣氛在團隊心理賦權與員工創造力之中介關係 39
4.6.8. 創意自我效能在團隊心理賦權與員工創造力之中介關係 39
4.6.9. 內在動機在團隊心理賦權與員工創造力之中介關係 40
4.7. Sobel Test檢測中介效果 42
五、 結論與建議 44
5.1. 研究貢獻 44
5.2. 實務建議 47
5.3. 研究限制與後續研究建議 48
Reference 49
問卷 57

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