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研究生:林筠原
研究生(外文):Yun-yuan Lin
論文名稱:減振基樁之瞬間變形與減振效果
論文名稱(外文):Model pile tests on the mitigating effects of vibration and immediate deformation
指導教授:張惠文張惠文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huei-wen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文出版年:2009
畢業學年度:97
語文別:中文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:振波衰減減振彈簧動態位移量減振基樁
外文關鍵詞:attenuation of wave propagationshock-absorbing springdynamic displacementpile of vibration suppression
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當交通運輸工具通過高架橋或橋樑路段時,對橋墩產生一衝擊能量,該衝擊能量首先傳遞至基樁,而基樁受一衝擊能量後,能量迅速由樁身傳遞至樁尖,於承載層形成一震源,向四周擴散傳播,之後經由各種折射、反射等現象將會造成土層或地表振動。另外,基樁振動除了樁尖所產生之壓力波外,樁身週遭土壤的相對運動或樁身周圍的土壤本身之相對變形均會產生剪力波,向外傳遞而出,因此希望直接透過橋墩下之基樁本身之改良設計來達到減振效果。
本研究利用液壓之方式與彈簧組合成一液壓彈簧複合式減振器,並進行一系列的模型試驗,彈簧可調節減振效果;液壓可控制最大動態變位量,組合其兩種不同之物理機制,可使基樁之最大動態變位量符合規範,且可達到最佳之減振效果。依照減振器內部配置不同,可將減振器分為六個型式,藉由模型試驗探討不同型式減振器加裝於基樁上時,對於樁尖在承載層中產生振波之減振效果、原型樁與改良樁之樁周土壤中振波波傳衰減行為、衝擊加速度與減振器最大動態變位量之關係。
實驗結果可知,樁身所承受之衝擊能量係藉由樁身傳遞至樁尖,再以樁尖為主要振源,向四周土壤傳遞能量。純彈簧之減振器減振效果最佳,但其最大動態變位量已高達5.14mm,而減振器填充水量之後可將最大動態變位量抑制於0.5mm以下,且其減振效果亦可高達50%,表示液壓彈簧減振器不僅達到了減低衝擊荷重產生之振波傳至樁尖之成效,亦能有效地將動態變位量降低。
It will generate impact energy to piers while transportation vehicles pass a viaduct or a bridge. This impact energy will be transmitted to pile foundation and then to the pile tip. A new vibration source will be formed in the bearing stratum and spread out. The vibration in soil layers or ground surface will be refracted and reflected. Besides, the vibration will transmit two kinds of waves. One is P-WAVE that is from pile tip, and the other one is S-WAVE that is caused by the relative movement in soil around pile shaft or the relative deformation in soil. Therefore, it is important to design a new pile shaft to decrease this impact energy.
This research performed a series of model pile tests by using a composite device of hydraulic cylinder and shock-absorbing spring. The spring can be used to adjust the effect of vibration mitigation and the hydraulic cylinder can be used to control the dynamic displacement. This dynamic displacement of pile foundation can be controlled to fit standard of the design code and may obtain the best effect of vibration mitigation by combining these two different physical systems. According to the different parts inside the shock absorbing devices, it can be divided into six kinds of types. With different types of shock absorbing devices, the relationships among the effect of vibration mitigation in bearing stratum, the behaviors of attenuation of wave propagation around treated and untreated piles in soil layer, the impact acceleration and the dynamic displacement were studied.
According to the results of experiments, it can be found that the impact energy is transmitted from pile shaft to the tip, and then to the surrounding soil. The best effect of vibration mitigation will be obtained by using pure spring. However, its dynamic displacement reached 5.14mm. If the shock absorbing device is fully filled with water, the settlement can be reduced to less than 0.5mm. And the best effect will reach 50%. It means that the composite device of hydraulic cylinder and shock-absorbing spring not only can reduce the impact energy but also can decrease the dynamic displacement efficiently.
目錄
摘要I
AbstractII
目錄III
照片目錄VII
表目錄VIII
圖目錄IX
符號說明XIV
第一章 緒論1
1-1 前言1
1-2 研究動機1
1-3 研究方法3
1-4 論文內容4
第二章 文獻回顧6
2-1 土壤波傳理論簡介7
2-1-1 彈性波傳種類與行為7
2-1-2 振波在土壤中的衰減模式12
2-2 樁基礎振動理論17
2-2-1 工程施工產生之振動形式17
2-2-2 交通運輸產生之振動形式20
2-3 減振工法之相關研究24
2-3-1 溝槽隔(減)振工法24
2-3-2 阻波塊(WIB)及蜂窩式阻波塊(HWIB)工法 31
2-3-3 地盤改良工法 33
2-3-4 數值模擬分析 34
2-3-5 衝擊荷重在基礎上之減振37
2-3-6 減振基樁之相關研究38
2-4 環境容許振動影響與評估39
2-4-1振波之量測方式40
2-4-2 振動量表示方式40
2-4-3 環境振動之相關法規41
第三章 試驗儀器設備及方法0
3-1 試驗土樣之基本物理性質 71
3-1-1 最大乾單位重試驗71
3-1-2 最小乾單位重試驗(土質工學會,1976)72
3-2 LVDT之校正73
3-3 試驗相對密度之標定73
3-3-1 試驗設備74
3-3-2 試驗步驟74
3-4 未改良樁之振波性質與樁周土壤中振波之衰減行為75
3-4-1 模型樁76
3-4-2 試驗儀器之設備76
3-4-3 試體製作78
3-4-4 試驗流程79
3-5 改良樁之振波性質與樁周土壤中振波之衰減行為80
3-5-1 試驗流程80
3-6 試驗規劃81
3-6-1 承載層81
3-6-2 砂土層81
第四章 試驗結果與分析99
4-1 原型樁樁周土壤振波衰減行為99
4-2 改良樁樁周土壤振波衰減行為101
4-2-1 液壓彈簧減振器對樁周土壤振波衰減行為102
4-2-2 各種液壓彈簧減振器對樁周土壤中振波之衰減效103
4-2-3 各種液壓彈簧減振器之減振成效106
4-3 模型樁之動態變位量108
4-3-1 試驗資料處理 109
4-3-3 液壓彈簧阻尼器之動態變位量110
4-3-4 液壓彈簧減振器之動態變位量與減振效果111
第五章 結論與建議 138
5-1 結論138
5-2 建議139
參考文獻140
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