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研究生:瑞利諾
研究生(外文):Victoriano Realino II
論文名稱:沿台灣大甲溪兩個流域的滑坡,沉積物運輸和土石流特徵
論文名稱(外文):The characteristics of landslides, sediment transportation, and debris flow of two watersheds along Tachia River, Taiwan
指導教授:董家鈞董家鈞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dong, Jia-Jyun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:應用地質研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:土石流地質災害滑坡地貌沉積物運輸
外文關鍵詞:debris flowgeohazardlandslidegeomorphologysediment transportation
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地震是所有自然現象中最具破壞性和危險性的其中之一,因其可能產生多個裂隙、裂縫甚至同震滑坡,能對山區造成嚴重破壞。連續降雨期間許多土石流也可能發生在暴露於強烈地面震動的區域。本研究的重點是沿著大甲溪流域的土石流沉積物之搬運和沉積過程。主要使用集集地震、桃芝颱風、敏督利颱風和艾莉颱風的航拍照片。在這項研究中,圖像分析工具也被用來研究四個事件的沉積物的時空形態。儘管僅相隔2.2公里,但兩個相鄰的流域DF025和DF106對地震和強降雨事件的反應不同,因此兩個流域的沉積物演變分析方法不同。這些差異可歸因於集集地震後發生不同類型的破壞:DF025的淺層滑坡和DF106的深層滑坡。沉積物來源的差異也轉化為盆地的類型,其中DF025可以被歸類為供應限制,而DF106作為供應無限制。在研究中估計了沉積物收支,其中DF106的桃芝颱風、敏督利颱風和艾利颱風的沉積量估計分別為1.0 x 105 m3、1.4 x 106 m3 和1.1 x 106 m3。這些沉積物可以向下游運輸,並對社區造成嚴重破壞,因為只有少量土石到達大甲溪,與DF025相同。這項研究的主要目的是對沿著大甲溪土石流流域的沉積物演變分析採用半定性和半定量方法
Earthquakes are one of the most destructive and dangerous of all natural phenomena as it could generate several fractures, cracks, and even co-seismic landslides that may cause havoc in mountainous regions. A number of debris flows during sequential rainfall mayalsooccurinanareawhichwasexposedtostronggroundshaking. Thisstudyfocuses on the sediment transportation and deposition evolution of watersheds with debris flow torrents,alongTachiaRiver. AerialphotoscoveringhazardssuchasChi-ChiEarthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Mindulle, and Typhoon Aere, respectively, were mainly used. In this research, image analysis tool was also exploited to study the temporal and spatial morphologyofthesedimentsforthefourevents. Despitebeingseparatedforonly2.2km, two adjacent watersheds, DF025 and DF106, have different reactions to the earthquake and heavy rainfall events, thus sediment evolution analysis is approached differently for the two catchments. These differences could be attributed to different types of failure that occurred after Chi-Chi Earthquake- shallow landslides for DF025 while deep-seated landslide for DF106. The differences in source also translates to the type of basin in which DF025 could be categorized as supply-limited, while DF106 as supply-unlimited. Sediment-budget were estimated in the study where DF106 has an estimated deposition volume of 1.0 x 105 m3, 1.4 x 106 m3, and 1.1 x 106 m3 for Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Mindulle, and Typhoon Aere, respectively. These deposits could travel downstream and create havoc to communities given the right conditions since only few debris reached Tachia River, same as DF025. The main objective of this research is to have a semiqualitative and semi-quantitative approach on the sediment evolution analysis on the watersheds with debris flow torrents along Tachia River.
Contents
摘要 ix
Abstract xi
Acknowledgement xiii
Contents xv
List of Figures xvii
List of Tables xxiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and the Importance of Tachia River ............................ 1
1.2 Description of the Study Area ................................................ 7
1.3 Chi-Chi Earthquake and the Following Heavy Rainfalls ..................... 14
1.4 Limitatons of the Study....................................................... 15
2 Methodology 17
2.1 Data Collection ............................................................... 17
2.2 Topographic Features Extraction ............................................. 18
2.2.1 Contour line generation ............................................... 18
2.2.2 Watershed, stream network, and alluvial fan delineation............. 18
2.3 Polygon Delineation according to Sediment Evolution Processes............ 21
2.3.1 Image Analysis Tool ................................................... 21
2.3.2 Erosion (including landslides, downcutting, bank erosion, and surficial erosion) .................................................................. 21
2.3.3 Transportation and deposition ........................................ 21
2.3.4 Excluded areas......................................................... 22
2.4 Estimation on Sediment-Budget Volume ..................................... 22
2.5 Sediment Evolution Analysis ................................................. 24

CONTENTS
3 Results and Discussions 25
3.1 Analysis Results of DF025 .................................................... 25
3.1.1 Topography analysis................................................... 25
3.1.2 Identifying erosion, transportation, deposition........................ 28
3.1.3 Characterizing erosion, transportation, deposition ................... 31
3.1.4 Sediment evolution .................................................... 33
3.2 Analysis Results of DF106 .................................................... 39
3.2.1 Topography analysis................................................... 39
3.2.2 Identifying erosion, transportation, deposition........................ 41
3.2.3 Characterizing erosion, transportation, deposition ................... 41
3.2.4 Sediment evolution .................................................... 43
4 Conclusions 51
Bibliography 53
A Calculations 57
B Supplementary Photos 73
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