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研究生:田佳峻
研究生(外文):Chia-Chun Tien
論文名稱:實作基於iBeacon 的Ad Hoc 定位系統
論文名稱(外文):Implementing the iBeacon-based Ad Hoc Positioning System
指導教授:江振瑞
指導教授(外文):Jehn-Ruey Jiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:藍牙4.0iBeacon定位標記Ad-hoc 定位系統DV-distance
外文關鍵詞:Bluetooth Low EnergyiBeaconlandmarkAd-hoc positioning systemDV-distance
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近年來,由於藍芽v4.0 (Bluetooth Low Energy, Bluetooth LE, BLE)技術的成熟,
蘋果公司(Apple Inc.)藉由此技術發展出iBeacon 廣播應用協定。iBeacon 基於佈建
容易、低功耗以及低成本的特點,常被使用於廣告播送與定位。由於iBeacon 基
本的定位方式為較粗略的鄰近(proximity)範圍偵測定位,位置未知的待定位目標
(target)裝置必須直接收到位置已知定位標記(landmark)的iBeacon 訊號才可粗略
定位。若需要完成較為精準的定位,目標裝置就必須能夠直接收到三個(或)以上
的定位標記iBeacon 訊號才可能達成。但是在現實環境中,目標裝置往往無法直
接收到足夠數量的定位標記iBeacon 訊號,甚至於無法直接收任何定位標記
iBeacon 訊號,造成無法定位的問題。本研究於Android 行動裝置上實作APP,以
Ad-hoc Positioning System(APS)之DV-distance 的定位概念為基礎,讓行動裝置藉
由藍牙無線傳輸以多跳(multi-hop)方式協助轉傳定位標記的iBeacon 訊號,來幫
助行動裝置在無法直接收到定位標記iBeacon 訊號的情況下,也可以達到準確度
不錯的定位結果。本研究並進行廣泛的實驗以評估所實作APP 的定位精準度。
In recent years, Bluetooth v4.0, which takes Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE,
Bluetooth LE) as its main technology, is widely adopted. Based on BLE, Apple Inc.
developed the iBeacon protocol for the applications of advertisement and positioning.
The basic positioning method of iBeacon is proximity-based. A target device must
directly receive signals from one iBeacon landmark to determine its position roughly.
To obtain more accurate position information, a target device needs to directly receive
signals from three or more iBeacon landmarks. However, in reality it is hard for a target
device to directly receive signals from iBeacon landmarks; the landmark sometimes
cannot directly receive signals from any landmark. This study implements, on the basis
of Ad-hoc Positioning System (APS) DV-distance of algorithm, an APP for Android
mobile devices to use multi-hop Bluetooth transmissions to forward the signals of
iBeacon landmarks. The APP can help mobile devices obtain positioning information of
good enough accuracy even when the target mobile device cannot directly receive
signals from any iBeacon landmark. Extensive experiments are performed to estimate
the positioning accuracy of the APP.
中文摘要 .................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ....................................................................................................................ii
誌謝 ......................................................................................................................... iii
目錄 .......................................................................................................................... iv
圖目錄 ....................................................................................................................... v
表目錄 ...................................................................................................................... vi
一、緒論 ................................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景 .................................................................................................... 1
1-2 研究目的與貢獻 ......................................................................................... 2
1-3 論文架構 .................................................................................................... 3
二、相關背景知識.................................................................................................... 4
2-1 iBeacon 概述 ............................................................................................... 4
2-2 三邊定位法(Trilateration)........................................................................... 8
2-3 DV-distance ................................................................................................. 9
三、系統架構與流程 .............................................................................................. 11
3-1 環境假設與需求 ....................................................................................... 11
3-2 系統架構與流程 ....................................................................................... 11
四、系統實作與實驗 .............................................................................................. 18
4-1 RSSI 與距離關係 ...................................................................................... 18
4-1-1 iBeacon 至行動裝置............................................................................... 18
4-1-2 行動裝置至行動裝置 ............................................................................ 22
4-2 實驗場景與誤差比較 ............................................................................... 24
4-2-1 實驗場景一 ........................................................................................... 25
4-2-2 實驗場景二 ........................................................................................... 27
4-2-3 實驗場景三 ........................................................................................... 29
4-2-4 實驗場景四 ........................................................................................... 31
4-2-5 實驗場景五 ........................................................................................... 33
4-3 實驗結果分析 .......................................................................................... 35
五、結論與未來展望 .............................................................................................. 37
參考文獻 ................................................................................................................. 38
[1] Bluetooth SIG Inc., Adopted Specifications, Core Version 4.0, BLUETOOTH
SPECIFICATION Version 4.0 [Vol 3], 2010,
https://www.bluetooth.com/specifications/adopted-specifications
〔2] M. Köhne, J. Sieck, “Location-based Services with iBeacon Technology”, Second
International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation, 2014
[3] A. Warski, “How do iBeacon Work?”, https://dzone.com/articles/how-do-ibeaconswork
〔4] Wikipedia, “iBeacon”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBeacon
〔5] D. Niculescu, B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS)”, Global
Telecommunications Conference, 2001. GLOBECOM ’01 IEEE (Volume:5), 2926-
2931, 2001
[6] D. Niculescu, and B. Nath, “DV Based Positioning in Ad Hoc Networks”
Telecommunication Systems 22:1-4, 267-280, 2003
[7] Android, Android Developers Reference,
http://developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/le/package-summary.html
〔8] Aislelabs, The Hitchhikers Guide to iBeacon Hardware: A Comprehensive Report by
Aislelabs (2015), http://www.aislelabs.com/reports/beacon-guide/
〔9] Apple Inc., Proximity Beacon Specification Release R1, 2015,
https://developer.apple.com/ibeacon/
〔10]Argenox Technologies, A BLE Advertising Primer,
http://www.argenox.com/bluetooth-low-energy-ble-v4-0-development/library/a-bleadvertising-
primer/
〔11]Bluetooth 4.0 Core Specification, Volume 3, Appendix C, 18.1
[12]Bluetooth 4.0 Core Specification, Volume 3, Appendix C, 18.4
39
〔13]N. A. Mahiddin, N. Safie, E. Nadis, S. Safei, and E. Fadzli, “Indoor Position Detection
using WiFi and Trilateration Technique”, The International Conference on Informatics
and Applications (ICIA2012)
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