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研究生:許睿峰
研究生(外文):Ruei-Fong Hsu
論文名稱:賦權感知、工作滿意、組織承諾與服務行為之相關性研究―以某連鎖便利商店為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study on The Relationships among Employees’ Psychological Empowerment, Job Satisfaction,Organizational Commitment, and Service Behavior -An Illustration of Convenience Chain Stores
指導教授:劉念琪劉念琪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nien-Chi Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文出版年:2008
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:服務行為組織承諾工作滿意賦權感知
外文關鍵詞:psychological empowermentjob satisfactionorganizational commitmentservice behavior
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在服務傳遞的過程中,員工難免因突發狀況而必須處理顧客的申訴事件,當今的企業中,有哪些管理作為會有助於員工在面對此類關鍵事件的處理?員工在接觸顧客及提供顧客服務時,是否能因適度賦權而即時反應於工作表現及衍生的服務行為?本研究以台灣某連鎖便利商店員工為調查對象,回收 376份問卷,來探討瞭解員工賦權感知、工作滿意、組織承諾及服務行為間之關係。並以敘述性統計、因素分析及線性結構方程式模式評鑑,進行資料分析與推論,研究結果如下:
1.賦權感知對服務行為間存在著正向且顯著明顯的影響。
2.賦權感知對工作滿意存在著正向且顯著的影響,工作滿意與組織承諾間亦存在著正向且顯著的效果;而賦權感知對組織承諾雖有正向的影響,但其效果未達顯著水準。
3.工作滿意對服務行為的影響並無顯著的直接效果,而組織承諾對服務行為間存在著正向且顯著明顯的因果關係,顯示組織承諾在工作滿意和服務行為間,具有正向的中介效果。
承上述,由本研究得知賦權感知對服務行為的影響,可透過兩個路徑來達成:一個是賦權感知對服務行為的直接影響;另一則是透過工作滿意與組織承諾為中介變項,來間接影響服務行為。賦權感知對服務行為的直接影響,比透過工作滿意與組織承諾的間接方式,所帶來的效果更大。因此建議個案公司在未來處理企業資源的分配時,可先增強員工的賦權感知,其對服務行為的提升將更具影響力。
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among employee’s working environment, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and service behavior. A total of three hundred and seventy-six samples from the convenience chain stores in Taiwan were collected and analyzed via descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study results are shown as follows:
1. Psychological empowerment has a significantly positive and direct effect on service behavior.

2. Psychological empowerment has a significantly positive and direct effect on job satisfaction, job satisfaction also has a significantly positive and direct effect on organizational commitment. Psychological empowerment has a positive effect on organization commitment, but the effect is not significant.

3. However, there were no significantly direct effect between job satisfaction and service behavior, but Organizational commitment has a significantly positive effect on service behavior. Organizational commitment reveals a significant mediating effect on job satisfaction to service behavior.

The study findings indicate that empowerment is a good incentive approach on improving employees’ service behavior and job satisfaction. Therefore, there is an impressing need for an organization to enhance employees’ psychological empowerment. The study suggests that management supervisors should provide a psychological empowerment environment for their employees who are willing to work at.
中文摘要i
英文摘要ii
目 錄iii
圖 目 錄iv
表 目 錄v
一、緒論1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-2 研究目的2
1-3 研究流程2
二、文獻探討4
2-1 服務行為4
2-2 賦權感知7
2-3 工作滿意10
2-4 組織承諾13
2-5 賦權感知與工作滿意、組織承諾及服務行為之相關實證研究18
三、研究方法21
3-1 研究架構及假設 21
3-2 變項的操作型定義與衡量方22
3-3 研究對象與抽樣方法26
3-4 資料分析方法26
3-5 結構方程式模式評鑑28
四、研究結果與分析31
4-1 樣本特性分析31
4-2 量表信度分析33
4-3 因素分析與相關分析36
4-4 線性結構關係模式42
五、結論與建議47
5-1 研究結論47
5-2 管理意涵與未來研究建議47
5-3 研究限制49
參考文獻51
一、中文部分51
二、英文部份53
附錄57
一、中文部分
①書籍
[1] 王保進,英文視窗版SPSS與行為科學研究,心理出版社,台北,民國九十五年。
[2] 邱皓政,結構方程模式:LISREL 的理論、技術與應用,雙葉出版社,台北,民國九十二年。
[3] 洪良浩,灌能,哈佛企管,台北,民國八十五年。
[4] 許士軍,管理學,東華書局,台北,民國七十九年。
[5] 黃俊英,多變量分析,中國經企研究所,台北,民國八十九年。
[6] 劉家駒,100個領導高手的故事, 遠流出版社,台北,民國九十二年。

②期刊報章論文
[1] 戚樹誠、李長貴,「員工參與、個體成熟度與工作態度之關聯性研究」,人力資源學報,5,79-93,民國八十四年。

[2] 蔡坤宏,「組織承諾、工作滿足與離職意圖的關係:Meta 分析」,中華管理評論,3,33-49,民國八十九年。

③學位論文
[1] 呂世模,「中華電信員工對民營化組織溝通、變革的認知與組織承諾之研究─以長途及行動通信公司為例」,國立交通大學,碩士論文,民國八十九年。

[2] 周子琴,「台灣高科技公司離職意圖和組織承諾要素之分析」,國立中央大學,碩士論文,民國九十年。

[3] 張瑋恩,「激勵與工作滿足關係之研究」,私立長榮管理學院,碩士論文,民國八十九年。

[4] 陳玉鎂,「轉換型領導對工作滿足及組織承諾的影響- 以工作特性為中介變項」,國立中央大學,碩士論文,民國九十五年。

[5] 陳宜佳,「員工賦權知覺、服務補救表現、工作滿意度及離職傾向之相關性研究」,私立靜宜大學,碩士論文,民國九十三年。

[6] 黃蘭鈺,「激勵因素、激勵制度與工作滿足之研究-以台中市某國際觀光旅館員工為例」,私立靜宜大學,碩士論文,民國九十二年。


[7] 雷千金,「工作滿足與組織承諾、服務品質關係之研究-以銀行業個案為例」,國立中央大學,碩士論文,民國九十二年。

[8] 廖運楨,「臺灣地區公立國民小學教師賦權增能」,國立新竹師範學院,碩士論文,民國九十年。

[9] 蔡文皇,「員工協助方案對工作滿意與組織承諾影響─創造業為例」,國立成功大學,碩士論文,民國八十七年。

[10]鄧顯華,「內部行銷、組織承諾與服務品質關係之探討-以海軍某修護工廠為例」,國立中山大學,碩士論文,民國九十二年。

二、英文部份
①書籍
[1] Bandura, A. Self-efficacy:The Exercise of Control. New York:W. H.Freeman, 6, 1997.

[2] Bell, N., Staw, B., "People as sculptors versus sculpture: the roles of personality and personal control in organizations", in Arthur, M.B., Hall, D.T., Lawrence, B.S. (Eds),Handbook of Career Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.232-51, 1989.

[3] Brief, A. P., & Nord, W. R. Meaning of occupational work. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1990.

[4] Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R.M. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior. New York: Plenum, 1985.

[5] Hoppock, R, Job satisfaction, Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York and London, 1935.

[6] Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. Work redesign, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1980.

[7] Locke, E. A., Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1297-1349, 1969.

②期刊報章論文
[1] Ashforth, B. E., “The experience of powerlessness in organizations”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43, 207-242, 1989.

[2] Bandura, A., “Self-efficacy:Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change”, Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977.

[3] Bandura, A., “Human agency in social cognitive theory”, American Psychologist, Vol.44, No.9, 1175- 1184. (1989)

[4] Becker, H. S., “Notes on the Concept of Commitment”, American Journal of Sociology, 66, p.p.32-42, 1960.

[5] Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., & Tetreault, M. S., “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents”, Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 71-84, 1990.

[6] Boshoff, C. & Allen, J., “The Influence of Selected Antecedent on Fronline Staff’s Perceptions of Service Performance”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63-90, 2000.

[7] Bowen, David E. & Lawler Ⅲ, Edward, “The employee empowerment Approach to service”, Center for Effective Organizations, CEO Publications, January 1994.

[8] Buchanan, B., “Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organization”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, pp.533-546, 1974.

[9] Carson, K. D., Carson, P.P., Eden, W. & Roe, C. W., “Does Empowerment Translate into Action?An Examination of Service Recovery Initiatives”, Journal of Quality Management, 3 (1), pp.133-148, 1998.

[10] Conger, J. A. & Kanungo, R.N, “The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice”, Academy of Management Review, 13, pp.471–482, 1988.

[11] Fulford, M. D. and C. A. Enz, “The impact of empowerment on service employees”, Journal of Managerial Issues, 7, No.1, pp.161-175, 1995.

[12] Gist, M. E. “Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management”, Academy of Management Journal, 12(1), 472-485, 1987.

[13] Hartline, J. G., Maxham, III, and McKee, D. O. “Corridors of Influence in the Dissemination of Customer-Oriented Strategy to Customer Contact Service Employees,” Journal of Marketing, Vol.64,No.2,pp.35-50, 2000.

[14] Herbiniak, L. G. and J. A. Alutto, “Personal and role- related factors in the development of organizational commitment”, Administrative Science Quarterly 17, pp.559-560, 1972.

[15] Hocutt, M. A. & Stone, T. H., “The Impact of Employee Empowerment on The Quality of A Service Recovery Effort”, Journal of Quality Management, 3(1),117-132, 1998.

[16] Hoffman, K. D. & T. N. Ingram, “Creating Customer-Oriented Employees:The Case in Home Health Care”, Journal of Health Care Marketing, 11, 24-32, 1991.

[17] Kallerberg, L. E., “Work values and job rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction”, American Sociological Review, 42, 124-143, 1977.


[18] Kelley, S. W. & Hoffman, K. D., “An Investigation of Positive Affect, Prosocial Behaviors and Service Quality”, Journal of Retailing, 73(3), 407-427, 1997.

[19] Kirkman, B. L. & Rosen, B., “Beyond self-management: Antecedents and consequences of team empowerment”, Academy of Management Journal, 42(1), 58-74, 1999.

[20] Koberg, C. S., R. W. Boss J. C. Senjem and E. A. Goodman, “Antecedents and outcomes of empowerment: Empirical evidence from the health care industry”, Group & Organization Management, 24, No.1, pp.71-91, 1999.

[21] Lance, A. B., & Stephen, W. B., “Contact Employees: Relationships Among Workplace Fairness, Job Satisfaction and Prosocial Service Behaviors”, Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 39-61, 1997.

[22] Mathieu, J.E. & Zajac, D.M., “A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment”, Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194, 1990.

[23] Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., and Gellatly, I. R., “Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: evaluation of measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 710-720, 1990.

[24] Meyer, J. P. & Allen, N. J., “A Three-component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, 1,61-89, 1991.

[25] Parasuraman, A, Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry L. L., “Servqual: A Multiple Item Scale for Measuring Customer Perceptions of Service Quality”, Journal of Retailing, 64, pp.12-40, 1988.

[26] Peccei, R. & Rosenthal, P., “Delivering Customer-Oriented Behavior ThroughEmpowerment: An Empirical Test of HRM Assumptions”, Journal of Management Studies, 38(6),pp. 831-857, 2001.

[27] Porter, L.W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., and Boulian, P. V., “Organization Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Among Psychiatric Technicians”, Journal of Applied Psycholocy, 59, pp.603-609, 1974.

[28] Rohit Deshpande, John U. Farley and Frederick E. Webster, Jr. “Corporate Culture, Customer Orientation, and Innovativeness in Japanese Firms: A Quadrad Analysis,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No.1, pp. 23-37, 1993.

[29] Saxe, R. and B. A. Weitz,”The SOCO Scale: A Measure of the Customer Orientation of Salespeople”, Journal of Marketing Research, 19(August), pp.343-351, 1982.

[30] Schneider, B., and Bowen, D. E., “Employee and customer perceptions of service in banks: Replication and extension”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), pp. 423-433, 1985.

[31] Sheldon, M.E., “Investments and involvements as mechanisms producing commitment to the organizationl”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, No.2, pp.143-150, 1971.

[32] Shetzer,L., “A Social Information Processing Model of Employee Participation”, Organization Science, 4,pp.1036-1056, 1993.

[33] Smith, Kendell and Hulin, “A Linear Model of Job Satisfaction”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, pp.209-216, 1969.

[34] Spreitzer, G.M., “Psychological Empowerment in The Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation”, Academy of Management Journal ,38, pp.1442–1465, 1995.

[35] Spreitzer, G.M., Kizilos, M.A.,& Nason, S.W., “A Dimensional Analysis of The Relationship Between Psychological Empowerment and Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Strain”, Journal of Management, 23, (5), pp.679–704, 1997.

[36] Staw, B. M., “Commitment to a policy decision : A multitheoretical perspective”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, pp.40-64, 1977.

[37] Steers,R.M., “Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, pp.46-56, 1977.

[38] Stevens, J. M., Beyer, J. M., Trice, H. M.,Assessing, Personal Role, “Organizational Predictions of Managerial Commitment”, Academy of Management Journal, 1,(3), pp.380-396, 1978.

[39] Thomas, K.W., Velthouse, B.A., “Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: an Interpretive Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation”, Academy of Management Review ,No.15, pp.666–681, 1990.

[40] Wiener,Y., “Commitment in Organization: A Normative View” , Academy of Management Review, 7,(3), pp.418-428, 1982.
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