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研究生:詹立菱
研究生(外文):Li-Ling Chan
論文名稱:整合地面光達點雲與近景影像敷貼房屋紋理
指導教授:陳良健陳良健引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chien Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:仿真式房屋模型地面光達近景影像遮蔽修補重複紋理
外文關鍵詞:Photorealistic Building ModelTerrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) DataClose Range ImageOcclusion RemovalRepetitive Texture
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隨著實境需求增加,二維空間資訊系統逐漸進化為三維。在三維空間資訊的應用中,建物模型屬重要的內容。自動化程度高且真實美觀的仿真式房屋模型建置方法,成為近年來的研究重點之一。本研究使用地面光達掃描與多角度近景影像,搭配已有的房屋模型,整合三種資料,敷貼出無遮蔽且視覺上真實與美觀的擬真房屋模型。
本研究所提出的方法分為四部分:(1)資料套合,(2)前景物判斷,(3)影像遮蔽區修補,及(4)牆面紋理選擇與敷貼。首先資料套合將整合過後的光達點雲與近景影像資料藉由方位解算統整至工作坐標系統。接著利用光達點雲的深度資訊找出前景物點。利用前景物點反投影影像,偵測出影像遮蔽區並修補。修補過後的立面紋理影像,依照其三維位置的形狀大小分類,而後進入紋理選擇。就重複紋理的目標,利用灰度共生矩陣進行紋理分析,加上影像的亮度資訊,經由篩選與配對後,得出模型中每個立面的紋理影像。
本研究使用影像的紋理與色調特性分析重複紋理,篩選出最適紋理立面。由實驗結果得知,房屋模型敷貼成果的成功率高,且能呈現視覺上的整齊、有統整性,達成兼具真實與美觀的目標。

As the virtual reality(VR) technology advances, geographic information systems(3D GIS) have been evolved from 2D to 3D. Building model has always been a major part in the applications of 3D GIS. Numerous studies have been working toward the generation of photorealistic building models in automated or semi-automated ways. Façade texture mapping that combines terrestrial laser scanning(TLS) data, close range images is proposed in this research. To strike a balance between reality and visualization, image occlusion detection and texture analysis is used in the process.
There are four main steps in the proposed method: (1) data registration, (2) forescene elements determination, (3) image occlusion detection and compensation, and (4) façade patch selection and texture mapping. First, a building model, close range images, and TLS data are registered in a unified coordinate system. Then, the forescene occlusion areas are detected by spatial analysis of the TLS point clouds. Forescene elements are backprojected onto images, and we compensate occluded parts from other angle images to create a large number of candidate patches. To recognize similar façade texture, we start from two different aspects, namely, façade patch geometric shape and façade patch texture. Compactness calculation and GLCM analysis are applied on these two characteristics individually. Texture characteristic and intensity value are considered in the analysis of repetitive texture patches to find the optimal façade texture. After the analysis, the optimal façade texture is selected by statistical clustering, accordingly. The experimental results show that the proposed mapping method in this research consider both aesthetic and authentic, and the process is applicable.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XII
第一章、前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法與內容 4
第二章、研究方法 6
2.1 資料套合 7
2.1.1 房屋模型與工作坐標系統建立 7
2.1.2 地面光達點雲套合 8
2.1.3 影像套合 9
2.2 牆面影像適用排序 10
2.2.1 可視性判斷 11
2.2.2 優先面選擇 12
2.3 影像遮蔽區修補 13
2.3.1 前景物判斷 14
2.3.2 遮蔽區辨識 15
2.3.3 局部立面影像產生 16
2.3.4 遮蔽區填補 17
2.4 重複紋理選擇與敷貼 17
2.4.1 面形狀大小分類 18
2.4.2 立面紋理特徵分析 20
2.4.3 最適面選擇 24
第三章、實驗成果與分析 27
3.1 實驗資料 27
3.1.1 測試例一 27
3.1.2 測試例二 30
3.2 實驗成果 32
3.2.1 測試例一 33
3.2.2 測試例二 40
3.3 實驗結果摘述與成果分析 65
第四章、結論與建議 72
第五章、參考文獻 75
Balsa-Barreiro, J., and Fritsch, D., 2015. Generation of 3D/4D Photorealistic Building Models. The Testbed Area for 4D Cultural Heritage World Project: The Historical Center of Calw (Germany). International Symposium on Visual Computing, pp. 361-372.

Baltsavias, E.P., 1999. A Comparison between Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 54(1):83-94.

Becker, S., and Haala, N., 2007. Combined Feature Extraction for Façade Reconstruction. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. 36 part 3/W52, pp. 44-49.

Bénitez, S., Denis, E., and Baillard, C., 2010. Automatic Production of Occlusion-free Rectified Façade Textures Using Vehicle-based Imagery. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. 38, part 3A, pp. 275-280.

Catmull, E.E., 1974. A Subdivision Algorithm for Computer Display of Curved Surfaces. Technical Report UTEC-CSc-74-133, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Utah.

Chen, C., and Yang, B., 2016. Dynamic Occlusion Detection and Inpainting of In situ Captured Terrestrial Laser Scanning Point Clouds Sequence. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 119(2016):90-107.

Dai, D., Riemenschneider, H., Schmitt, G., and Van Gool, L., 2013. Example-based facade texture synthesis. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 1065-1072.

Gong, P., Marceau, D.J., and Howarth, P.J., 1992. A Comparison of Spatial Feature Extraction Algorithms for Land-Use Classification with SPOT HRV Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 40, pp. 137–151.

Haralick, R. M., Shanmugan, K., and Dinstein, I., 1973. Texture Features for Image Classification. IEEE Trans. Sys. Man Cyber, 3(6): 610-621.

Henricsson O., Streilein A. and Gruen. A., 1996. Automated 3-D Reconstruction of Buildings and Visualization of City Models. Workshop on 3D-City Models Proceedings, Bonn.

Kang, Z. Z., Zhang, L. Q., Zlatanova, S., and Li, J., 2010. An Automatic Mosaicking Method for Building Façade Texture Mapping Using a Monocular Close-range Image Sequence. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 65(3):282-293.

Murphy, M., Govern, EM., and Pavia, S., 2013. Historic Building Information Modelling– Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 76:89-102.

Poli, D., and Caravaggi, I., 2013. 3D modeling of large urban areas with stereo VHR satellite imagery: Lessons learned. Nat. Hazards, 68, pp. 53–78.

Pu, S., and Vosselman, G., 2009. Building Facade Reconstruction by Fusing Terrestrial Laser Points and Images. Sensors 2009, 9, pp. 4525-4542.

Rau, J. Y., and Chu, C. Y., 2011. Vector-based Occlusion Detection for Automatic Façade Texture Mapping. IEEE International Workshop on Multi-Platform/ Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and Mapping, pp. 1-6.

Zlatanova S., 2000. 3D GIS for Urban Development. PhD Thesis, ITC Dissertation Series no 69, The International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences, the Netherlands.

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