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研究生:郭晉帆
研究生(外文):Chin-Fan Kou
論文名稱:太陽光電系統長期戶外實測與模型性能分析
論文名稱(外文):Long-term Outdoor Measurement of Photovoltaic System and Performance Analysis by PVUSA Model
指導教授:吳俊諆吳俊諆引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:能源工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:太陽光電雙軸PV/CPV固定式PV長期戶外實測性能分析PVUSA模型
外文關鍵詞:Photovoltaicdual axis PV/CPVfixed PVlong-term outdoor measurementperformance analysisPVUSA model
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本研究在中壢與屏東地區針對太陽光電(photovoltaic, PV)和聚光型太陽光電(concentrator PV, CPV)系統進行長期(一年)戶外實測與各項分析,內容有三項重點:性能實測與分析、環境參數的影響、PVUSA模型預測與實測比較。
採用軌跡公式追日法的雙軸PV系統與固定式PV系統進行性能比較,雙軸PV的發電增益為22.7%,顯示雙軸追日法可以有效提高產能;比較軌跡公式與光感測器追日法,晴天時兩者的發電量非常接近,陰天則是軌跡公式的表現較好;比較PV與CPV系統在中壢地區的性能,CPV的各項數據(最終產能、PR)皆低於PV,顯示在像中壢的日照不佳地區CPV表現仍不佳;同一套雙軸PV系統分別在中壢(平均日照量246.79 W/m2)與屏東地區(平均日照量為271.88 W/m2)進行實測,屏東的PV系統平均發電量較高,發電增益為25.8%,顯示日照條件直接影響性能表現。
日照量是影響PV系統性能的主要參數,與輸出功率呈線性正相關;晴朗指數除可判斷氣候情況,也可用於評估PV系統的性能表現,發電增益會隨晴朗指數上升而增加;模組溫度與輸出功率、轉換效率呈負相關,當溫度上升,受到熱損失的影響,性能表現會逐漸降低;風速與模組溫度之間為線性負相關,當風速大於8 m/s時,模組溫度呈現下降的趨勢。
PVUSA模型可以根據日照量、環境溫度和風速評估PV系統的輸出功率,本研究的實測值與PVUSA分析值非常接近,顯示PVUSA模型可以作為評估性能的方法。

This study analyzed the performance of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems with long-term (one year) outdoor measurement in Jhungli and Pingtung. The content was divided into three parts: performance measurement and analysis, impact of environmental parameters and PVUSA model prediction with measurement.
Field measurement of the dual-axis PV system using the sun-trajectory calculation and the fixed PV system was compared. The electricity generation of the tracking PV was 22.7% higher than that of the fixed one. Comparison of two sun-tracking methods (n sun-trajectory calculation and light sensor) of the two-axis PV system showed that the electricity output of both approaches were very close on sunny days. On cloudy days, the sun-trajectory calculation was higher. Comparison between PV and CPV system in Jhungli showed that CPV generated lower electricity. This indicates that the performance of CPV is still unsatisfactory in low insolation area such as Jhungli. Two dual-axis PV systems with the same sun-tracking approach were measured in Jhungli (average irradiance is 246.79 W/m2) and Pingtung (average irradiance is 271.88 W/m2) respectively. The power generation of the PV system in Pingtung was 25.8% higher. This showed that irradiance affects performance directly.
The irradiance was the most important parameter which correlated linearly with power output. Clearness index can evaluate the performance of PV. The electricity generation increased with higher clearness index. PV module temperature was in negative correlation with power output. Wind speed was in negative correlation with PV module temperature.
PVUSA model can estimate power output with a correlation of irradiance, ambient temperature and wind speed. The agreement between measurement and analysis was excellent. It showed that PVUSA model can assess performance of PV system accurately.

目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xi
符號對照表 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 太陽能產業概況 2
1.3 太陽電池技術 4
1.3.1 發電原理 4
1.3.2 種類特性與應用 5
1.4 研究動機 7
1.5 文獻回顧 8
1.6 論文架構 14
第二章 太陽光電系統與實驗分析方法 15
2.1 實驗型太陽光電系統 16
2.1.1 系統架構 16
2.1.2 PV & CPV模組 18
2.1.3 電力調節器(inverter) 19
2.2 實驗數據擷取系統 20
2.2.1 追日偏差角量測設備 20
2.2.2 氣象數據監測系統 22
2.2.3 嵌入式資料擷取(DAQ)系統 23
2.2.4 太陽電池面板測試儀(SIV-1000) 24
2.3 分析與實驗方法 25
2.3.1 性能分析參數 25
2.3.2 SIV-1000實測 32
2.3.3 PVUSA模型之迴歸分析 35
第三章 中壢與屏東地區太陽光電系統之性能分析 37
3.1 屏東地區雙軸PV與固定式PV系統之性能比較 37
3.2 中壢地區軌跡追日法與光感測器追日法之性能比較 40
3.3 中壢地區PV與CPV系統之性能比較 45
3.4 中壢與屏東地區雙軸PV系統之性能比較 48
3.5 中壢地區PV系統之性能衰退分析 50
第四章 環境參數與性能之關聯性分析 52
4.1 日照量與性能之關聯性分析 52
4.1.1 總日照 52
4.1.2 直射日照 54
4.1.3 漫射日照 56
4.1.4 晴朗指數 58
4.2 溫度與性能之關聯性分析 60
4.2.1 模組溫度與輸出功率 61
4.2.2 模組溫度與轉換效率、填充因子 62
4.2.3 模組溫度與I-V曲線 63
4.3 風速與性能之關聯性分析 64
4.4 PVUSA模型之分析 65
4.4.1 迴歸分析 65
4.4.2 性能分析 66
第五章 結論與未來展望 68
5.1 結論 68
5.2 未來展望 70
附錄A Excel的迴歸分析 72
參考文獻 76


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