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研究生:鄭姍姍
研究生(外文):Shan Shan
論文名稱:網路討論區評鑑指標發展及應用
論文名稱(外文):The development and applications of evaluative criteria for online discussion forums
指導教授:劉旨峯劉旨峯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Eric Zhi-Feng Liu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:學習與教學研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:網路討論區評鑑指標
外文關鍵詞:online discussion forumevaluative criteria
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隨著網路科技及線上溝通平台的進步,網路討論區不僅是師生之間的溝通平台;它也被學生視為是另一種學習資源。而學習資源的優劣可能影響學生的學習。回顧文獻,目前尚未有一個完整的網路討論區的評鑑指標存在。因此,本研究旨在開發出一個可以用來評鑑網路討論區的指標。並探討其應用及其對學習的影響。本研究以三個階段進行:
第一階段:依據社會建構理論(Social cognitive theory)、參與設計(Participatory design)與德懷術(Delphi techniques),透過訪談與個人評鑑討論區方式獲得41位資管系學生的意見;再經由專家的分類產生了一組包含個人的(Personal)、行為的(Behavioral)與環境的(Environmental)三種分類的指標。
第二階段:依據文獻建議,由教師使用教學策略使該課程的網路討論區符合第一階段所獲得的指標要求。透過內容分析法觀察105位資管系學生在課程討論區中的討論行為及品質。研究發現,當教師以教學策略使課堂討論區符合評鑑指標要求時,學生產生較多高層次的提問,也較常上網閱讀他人的發文。
第三階段:使用評鑑指標進行篩選後,將這兩個不同品質的討論區(sophisticated and less sophisticated)提供給學生當作學習資源。透過準實驗法進行比較兩組學生在使用不同的學習資源後,於學習成果、線上討論品質及行為的差異。研究結果顯示,接受較精緻品質(sophisticated)的學習資源,該組學生於學習成效上優於另一組的學習者。另外,在線上討論行為及品質上,精緻組的學習者有較多的線上討論行為;且在品質上也有較多高層次的提問。
本研究經由專家及使用者的意見開發出一個包含PBE三元素的評鑑指標。並進行二個教學實驗,實驗結果顯示,此評鑑指標不僅可以用來篩選出品質不同的網路討論區,也提供有效的指引給那些將應用網路討論區於教學與學習的使用者。
With the development of online communication technologies, people’s life has been altered. The change took place not only on the way people communicate with others but also on the ways educators teach and students learn.
According to the previous studies, students used online discussion forums as alternative learning resources. It is believed that the qualities of learning resources will influence students’ learning, and the need of a set of indicators for evaluating online discussion forums was proposed. Hence, the primary aim of this study is to develop a set of evaluative criteria for online discussion forums, and then to investigate its implications and influences on students’ learning. The researcher proceeded with this study through three phases.
First phase: based on social cognitive theory, participatory design, and Delphi techniques, the researcher interviewed 41 students, asked the students to evaluate online discussion forum and three experts to classify the data came from students’ opinions, and finally developed a set of evaluative criteria for online discussion forums.
After the completion of development of the evaluative criteria, besides of being used for evaluating online discussion forums, the criteria should be a reference which could help teachers to develop effective instructional strategies. Therefore, in phase two and phase three, the researcher conducted two case studies to discuss how to apply the developed evaluative criteria in instruction.
Second phase: based on the developed evaluative criteria and the suggestions from literature review, the teacher applied instructional strategies to make the class-based online discussion forum meet the requirement of the criteria. Via using content analysis to investigate 105 students’ online discussion quality and behaviors, the results revealed that students had more higher-level questions and logged in online discussion forum more frequently to read others’ posting when teacher used instructional strategies to make the online discussion forum meet the requirement of the developed criteria.
Third phase: using the developed evaluative criteria to filter out one sophisticated and one less-sophisticated online discussion forum. Giving these two online discussion forums to the students as alternative learning resource, the researcher investigated the differences of students’ learning performance, discussion behaviors, and discussion quality between two groups in order to explore the influences of online discussion forums with different qualities. The results indicated that students with sophisticated learning resource had better learning performance, more discussion behaviors, and more high level questions.
This study, based on experts and participants’ opinions, developed a set of evaluative criteria comprising of personal, behavioral, and environmental influences. In order to know how the criteria could be used in education, two experiments were conducted. The results disclosed that the developed criteria could be used to filter out online discussion forums with different qualities and offer effective guidelines for the teachers who want to integrate online discussion forums into their instruction.
Table of Contents

Chinese abstract i
English abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 The importance of online discussion forums in education 1
1-2 Existent shortage in previous studies related to the use of online discussion forums in education
3

1-3 Purpose of this dissertation 4
1-4 Dissertation organization 5
1-5 Summary 6
Chapter 2 Review of pertinent literature 7
2-1 Influential elements of online discussion forums discussed in previous studies 7
2-2 Theoretical Framework: Social cognitive Theory 8
2-3 Review of related works based on social cognitive theory 11
2-3-1 Personal influence 12
2-3-2 Behavioral influence 13
2-3-3 Environmental influence 14
2-3-4 A previous study adopting the perspective of social cognitive theory 16

2-4 Introduction and review of coding schemes used for the analysis of online discussion forums 18

2-5 Summary 22
Chapter 3 Developing a set of evaluative criteria for online
discussion forums 24

3-1 Adapting a method to develop evaluation criteria for online discussion forums: from the perspective of users 24

3-2 Adapting a method to develop evaluation criteria for online discussion forums: from the perspective of experts 29


3-3 Evaluative criteria based on social cognitive theory 31
3-3-1 Types of online discussion forums frequented by students 31

3-3-2 Developed indicators 32
3-4 Discussion 38
3-5 Summary 39
Chapter 4 The application of the developed evaluative criteria:
Using the evaluative criteria as guidelines for operating a
class-based online discussion forum 40

4-1 Applying the evaluative criteria as guidelines and the research questions 40
4-2 Strategies to develop online discussion forums that satisfy the evaluative criteria 41

4-3 Methodology 43
4-3-1 Participants 43
4-3-2 Course content and procedure 44
4-3-3 The online discussion forum used in case study one 45
4-3-4 Coding scheme 46
4-3-5 Data collection and analysis 47
4-4 Results of using the developed evaluative criteria as guidelines 49
4-4-1 How do students react to an online discussion forum developed in accordance with the evaluative criteria 49


4-4-2 Do students engage in higher quality interactions in an online discussion forum such as this 52


4-4-3 How do students evaluate the class-based online discussion forum developed in accordance with the evaluative criteria 55
4-5 Discussion of using the developed evaluative criteria as guidelines 62
4-6 Summary 67
Chapter 5 The application of the developed evaluative criteria:
Using the evaluative criteria as filter for identifying
online discussion forums with different qualities 69

5-1 Applying the evaluative criteria as filter and the research questions 69
5-2 Two online Q&A discussion forums used as alternative learning resources 70

5-3 Methodology 72
5-3-1 Course and Participants 72
5-3-2 The experiment and research hypotheses 73
5-3-3 Data collection and analysis 76
5-4 Results of using the developed evaluative criteria as filter 77
5-4-1 Do students using a sophisticated online discussion forum behave differently from those using a less-sophisticated forum? 77


5-4-2 Do students using a sophisticated online discussion forum ask higher level questions from those using a less-sophisticated forum? 79

5-5 Discussion of using the developed evaluative criteria as filter 82
5-6 Summary 86
Chapter 6 Conclusions and future work 88
6-1 Conclusions and contribution 88
6-2 Limitation 90
6-3 Suggestion for implications 93
6-4 Future work 96
References 99
Appendix 1 The questionnaire for Delphi consultation (Round one) 113
Appendix 2 The questionnaire for Delphi consultation (Round two) 116
Appendix 3 The questionnaire for Delphi consultation (Round three) 119
Appendix 4 The evaluative sheet for users to grade the online discussion forums used in GEPT course in second stage of the study (in Chinese) 122
Appendix 5 The informed consent for research subjects (in Chinese) 125
Appendix 6 The evaluative sheet for experts to grade the online Q&A discussion forums used by the students as alternative learning resources in third stage of the study 126














List of Figures

Figure 1 Schematization of the relations among behavior (B), cognitive and other personal factors (P), and the external environment (E) 9
Figure 2 Theoretical framework based on social cognitive theory to investigate the use of online discussion forums by students 11
Figure 3 Liu’s model illustrating the use of a discussion forum in a computer science course from the perspectives of social cognitive theory 17
Figure 4 The procedure involved in generating evaluative criteria 30
Figure 5 The fifteen indicators extracted according to the tenets of social cognitive theory 37
Figure 6 Experimental procedure for group S 75
Figure 7 Experimental procedure for group LS 76







List of Tables

Table 1 The descriptive statistics results of personal influences from students’ evaluation of class-based online discussion forum 55
Table 2 The descriptive statistics results of behavioral influences from students’ evaluation of class-based online discussion forum 59
Table 3 The descriptive statistics results of environmental influences from students’ evaluation of class-based online discussion forum 60
Table 4 Scores of Yahoo knowledge plus and Softking 71
Table 5 Descriptive statistics of group S and group LS related to the behavior of students in class-based online discussion forums 78
Table 6 Results from three sets of t-tests 79
Table 7 Descriptive statistics of the questions asked by group S and group LS in class-based online discussion forum 80
Table 8 The results from four sets of t-tests 81
Table 9 Summary of ANCOVA test on student performance 82
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