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研究生:鄭峻翔
研究生(外文):Chun-Shiang Cheng
論文名稱:淡水河口之顆粒性有機碳、氮同位素及溶解性無機氮同位素之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Particulate Organic Carbon and Nitrogen and Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen and Their Isotopic compositions in the Danshuei Estuary
指導教授:劉康克劉康克引用關係高樹基高樹基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kon-Kee LiuShuh-Ji Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:水文與海洋科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:98
語文別:中文
論文頁數:187
中文關鍵詞:同位素分化效應顆粒性有機物質氮循環
外文關鍵詞:Particulate organic matterIsotope fractionationNitrogen cycle
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淡水河位於臺灣北部,流域內工商業發達,人口聚居達五百萬以上。都市的廢水排入淡水河中,對河中懸浮物質與營養鹽有很大的影響。本研究乃利用碳、氮同位素作為示蹤劑,去探討有機物的來源。藉由分析顆粒性氮及溶解性無機氮之同位素組成,從兩者之關係,進而了解藻類吸收無機氮營養鹽之同位素分化作用。透過這些化學及同位素組成之分析,可以讓我們更了解淡水河系統中,有機物來源及生地化過程。本研究建立一個氨氮同位素標本製備方法:擴散法(Diffusion Method),來量測淡水河的銨(d15N-NH4+)之氮同位素組成,對本研究極有助益。
本研究進行了三次淡水河口採樣,在重陽橋利用兩個潮汐週期採得鹽度(0~16 psu)之水樣,可代表河口中段之狀況。主要目的是了解水體中營養鹽濃度的變化,以及與其它水文因子的關係,藉以探討影響淡水河顆粒性有機物的主要因子與生地化過程。
淡水河之顆粒性氮同位素值在-17‰~+4‰之間,比世界其他河川的顆粒性氮之同位素值(-2‰~+20‰)來的輕很多。研究結果顯示,淡水河口之顆粒性有機物與葉綠素大多有良好之線性關係,顯示河口中藻類所產生之顆粒性有機物十分重要,推斷是藻類吸收污水中之營養鹽後生長出來,而藻類生長所需氮的主要來源是污水中的銨離子,在吸收過程中有強烈的同位素分化作用,顆粒性有機氮與銨離子之同位素差異可達-19‰。本研究首次證實Pennock等人(1996)在實驗室中培養矽藻所觀察到的受銨濃度影響之強烈同位素分化作用,在淡水河口的水體中的確會發生。
在世界上許多研究過的河川中主要的氮物種是硝酸根,而淡水河口是以銨離子為主要的氮物種,由於藻類吸收銨離子之強烈分化作用,使得淡水河口中所量測到的顆粒性氮之同位素值,比世界其他河川所量測出之顆粒性氮之同位素值來的輕很多。
由於淡水河河口之特殊環境,未來可對其氮循環及同位素分化作用作進一步之探討。
The Danshuei River watershed in northern Taiwan is heavily industrialized and commercially developed with more than five million inhabitants. Anthropogenic wastes discharged to the Danshuei River strongly affect the concentrations of suspended organic matter and nutrients. In this study, we use carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions to trace the origin of organic matter. By analyzing nitrogen isotopic compositions of particulate nitrogen (PN) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), we may determine isotope fractionation during algal uptake of nitrogen. From chemical and isotopic compositions we are able to better understand biogeochemical process in the Danshuei River System. We also established the relatively simple diffusion method to measure d15N-NH4+ in the Danshuei Estuary.
The results show that particulate nitrogen isotopic values (δ15NPN) in the Danshuei Estuary fall in the range from -17‰ to +4‰, which is lower than the values observed in other estuaries in the world. Since particulate organic matter (POM) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) show good linear relationship, algae generated particulate organic matter (POM) should be important. The major source of nitrogen sustaining phytoplankton growth is ammonium (NH4+). The uptake process displays strong isotope fractionation with maximum δ15N shift reaching -19‰. Field observations of this study have corroborated the finding of Pennock et al., (1996) during culture of diatoms that ammonia uptake could be accompanied by large isotope fractionation.
In most studied estuaries in the world, the major nitrogen species is nitrate (NO3-), whereas ammonium (NH4+) is the major nitrogen species in the Danshuei Estuary. Because algal uptake of ammonium (NH4+) has strong isotope fractionation, particulate nitrogen isotopic values (δ15NPN) in the Danshuei Estuary are unusually low.
The distinctive biogeochemical features of the Danshuei Estuary warrant future studies on its nitrogen cycle and isotope fractionation processes.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
目錄 vii
表目錄 xi
圖目錄 xii

第一章 概說 1
1.1 氮循環 2
1.2 碳循環 4
1.3 穩定同位素 5
1.4 同位素分化作用 6
1.5 碳、氮同位素的變化 8
1.6 河口之定義 10
1.7 淡水河文獻回顧 11
1.8 研究目的 12
第二章 材料與方法 13
2.1 採樣方法 13
2.1.1 採樣地點與時間 13
2.1.2 觀測及採樣方式 14
2.1.3 污水處理廠標本取得與處理方式 15
2.2 分析方法 16
2.2.1 氨氮同位素分析:擴散法 16
2.2.2 固態法與溶液法 19
2.2.3 硝酸根氮之同位素:細菌法 21
2.2.3 顆粒性有機物(POM) 21
2.2.4 銨離子濃度測定方式 21
2.2.5 磷酸根濃度測定方式 25
2.2.6 亞硝酸根濃度測定方式 25
2.2.7 硝酸根濃度測定方式 26
2.2.8 矽酸根濃度測定方式 26
2.2.9 葉綠素a 27
2.2.10 鹼度 27
2.2.11 溶氧 31
2.3 同位素標本之測定 34
2.3.1 質譜儀 35
2.3.2 氮樣本分析流程 35
第三章 氨氮同位素標本製備之測試 37
3.1 數據處理步驟 37
3.1.1 最小平方直線作法(Derivation of a least-squares line) 37
3.1.2 測試樣本之數據處理方法 39
3.2 實驗之設計 41
3.3 分析結果 41
3.3.1 擴散法 41
3.3.2 固態法 43
3.3.3 溶液法 45
3.4 討論 46
3.5 小結 47
第四章 淡水河 49
4.1 淡水河系簡介 49
4.2 樣品採集時間與地點 51
4.3 結果 51
4.3.1 水位與鹽度 51
4.3.2 硝酸根(NO3-) 52
4.3.3 亞硝酸根(NO2-) 52
4.3.4 銨(NH4+) 52
4.3.5 磷酸根(PO43-) 53
4.3.6 矽酸根(SiO42-) 53
4.3.7 葉綠素(Chl-a) 53
4.3.8 溶氧(DO) 54
4.3.9 鹼度與總溶解性二氧化碳(Alk&TCO2) 55
4.3.10 顆粒性有機碳(POC)、顆粒性氮(PN)之濃度與同位素 55
4.3.11 污水處理廠採樣結果 56
4.4 討論 57
4.4.1 淡水河口營養鹽濃度變化探討 57
4.4.2 淡水河口溶氧濃度之探討 58
4.4.3 淡水河口之生地化作用 60
4.4.3.1 顆粒性有機物之變化 60
4.4.3.2 顆粒性氮與溶解性無機氮之同位素關係 61
4.4.3.3 顆粒性有機碳氮同位素組成與來源 61
4.4.3.4 藻類吸收銨之同位素分化作用 63
4.5 小結 65
第五章 結論與建議 67
5.1 結論 67
5.2 建議 69

英文參考文獻 70
中文參考文獻 75
附錄一 磷酸根濃度分析 139
附錄二 亞硝酸根濃度分析 143
附錄三 硝酸根濃度分析 146
附錄四 矽酸根濃度分析 149
附錄五 葉綠素a濃度分析 153
附錄六 野外採樣標本資訊及現場量測水文參數之原始數據 157
附錄七 野外採樣標本之營養鹽濃度之原始數據 161
附錄八 野外採樣標本之pH值、溶氧、鹼度及總溶解二氧化碳之原始數據 165
附錄九 野外採樣標本之顆粒有機碳氮濃度與同位素之原始數據 169
附錄十 2009年2月採樣,水位計連續觀測之資料 171
附錄十一 2009年2月採樣,CTD連續觀測之資料 176
附錄十二 2009年7月採樣,水位計連續觀測之資料 184
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