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研究生(外文):Yi-Jhong Han
論文名稱(外文):The modulation of encoding task type on the mirror effect in recognition memory for semantically transparent and opaque Chinese words: Behavioral and ERP studies
指導教授(外文):Shih-kuen Cheng
外文關鍵詞:recognition memorymirror effectsemantic transparencyevent-related potentials
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This study investigated the mirror effect in recognition memory for semantic transparency: why semantically opaque words are better remembered than transparent ones. To examine whether the recognition advantage for opaque words results from a more elaborative encoding processing in comparison to that for transparent ones, the types of encoding tasks were manipulated among the experiments. Experiment 1 employed concreteness judgments as the encoding task. The hit rate and the proportion of “Remember” response remained to be higher for opaque words than for transparent ones. These results indicated that the elaborative encoding processing on the opaque words cannot fully account for the recognition advantage of these words. A transparency judgment task was employed as the encoding task in Experiment 2. Both old and new transparent words elicited more “old” r and “Remember” responses than opaque words. The results suggested that the recognition advantage of opaque words was decreased by the encoding task that demanded participants to process the meanings of each constituent. In the encoding task of transparency judgment, the representations of the transparent words might have been marked because of the consistency between the meanings of the transparent words and their constituents. These words might therefore be better remembered than opaque ones. Experiment 3 employed a similar procedure of Experiment 2, during which ERPs were recorded at test. Both transparent and opaque words showed reliable mid-frontal and left-parietal effects. The magnitudes and the topographic distributions of these two effects were not differed by transparent words and opaque words. The ERP data revealed no evidence that there are non-overlapping neural substrates underlying the retrievals of semantically transparent and opaque words. The hit rates for both kinds of words were high (above 90%) in Experiments 2 and 3, leading to the concerns of ceiling effects. The possibility was excluded in Experiment 4 by deferring the test phase to one day after the study phase, which resulted in lower but equivalent hit rates for both types of words. By measuring the subjective memorability of transparent and opaque words following different encoding conditions, Experiment 5 revealed that the false-alarm portion of the semantic transparency mirror effect was a consequence of criterion shifting. Participants tend to adopt a more stringent criterion for opaque words than that for opaque words when lexical decision was employed as the encoding task. In sum, the results of the five experiments suggest that the incongruence between the meanings of opaque words and their constituents resulted in the better recognition performance and greater recollection than transparent words. However, this advantage can be decreased when the encoding task emphasized the processing of the meanings of the individual constituents of both transparent and opaque words.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
Table of Contents vii
List of Figures x
List of Tables xii
1. Introduction 1
1-1. The mirror effect in recognition memory 2
1-2. Single-process account for mirror effect 3
1-3. Dual-process account for mirror effect 9
1-4. The disagreement between single- and dual-process models 13
1-5. Event-related potentials and recognition memory 16
2. Research Aim 22
2-1. Semantic transparency 22
2-2. Previous study on semantic transparency mirror effect 23
3. Overview of the experiments conducted in this thesis 25
4. Experiment 1 27
4-1. Method 27
4-2. Results 32
4-3. Discussion 38
5. Experiment 2 40
5-1. Method 41
5-2. Results 42
5-3. Discussion 47
6. Experiment 3 49
6-1. Method 50
6-2. Results 53
6-3. Discussion 62
7. Experiment 4 65
7-1. Method 66
7-2. Results 67
7-3. Discussion 71
8. Experiment 5A and 5B 73
8-1. Method 75
8-2. Results 78
8-3. Discussion 84
9. General Discussion 86
9-1. Experimental Findings 86
9-2. Further Directions 94
9-3. Conclusions 96
References 97
Appendix A: The instruction of concreteness judgment 102
Appendix B: The instruction of “Remember/Know” procedure 103
Appendix C: The instruction of transparency judgment 104
Appendix D: The instruction of lexical decision task 105
Appendix E: The instruction of subjective memorability rating 106
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