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研究生:顏誌助
研究生(外文):Chuh-Chu Yen
論文名稱:具有高品質反量化演算的AAC解碼器之平台式設計
論文名稱(外文):Platform-Based Design for MPEG AAC Decoder with High Quality Re-quantization Algorithm
指導教授:蔡宗漢蔡宗漢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Han Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:平台式設計反量化演算法AAC解碼器
外文關鍵詞:High Quality Re-quantization AlgorithmPlatform-Based DesignMPEG AAC Decoder
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MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3)語音編碼是最近幾年流行的標準,而一較高品質的標準Advanced Audio Coding(AAC)也已被提出與使用當中,AAC是由Moving Picture Experts Group(MPEG)所發展,並已於1997年4月成為國際標準。
在MP3與AAC中,量化和反量化是一不可缺少的部分,且影響音訊的好壞,關於量化和反量化,此篇論文提出一新的演算法和硬體架構,並且以ARM 920T處理器完成嵌入式MPEG AAC 解碼系統。
而整個AAC 解碼使用ARM的920T發展平台,而為了即時的展示,設計了一個數位轉類比的介面電路在ARM的Logic Module LM-XCV2000E上,它接收來自Core Module的音訊PCM資料,並傳到DAC電路而輸出類比音訊。
MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) audio coding has been the most popular standard for these years. Moreover, a new higher quality audio coding standard “Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)” has been proposed and widely used now. AAC is a high-quality perceptual audio coder developed by Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). It has been standardized as ISO 13818-7 in April 1997.
The quantization/re-quantization is an essential block in both MP3 and AAC and can affect the coding quality significantly. This paper presents a new high accuracy estimation algorithm and corresponding hardware for MP3 and MEPG-2/4 AAC audio coding. And this paper proposes the techniques to implement MPEG AAC decoding algorithm using the ARM 920T 32-bit RISC processor. We also apply the high quality quantization algorithm to increase the quality and performance.
The whole AAC decoding system is designed based on an embedded system with ARM’s Core Module 920T and the Integrator/AP ASIC Development Motherboard. In order to make a real time demonstration, we designed a DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) interface in the Xilinx FPGA chip on the ARM’s Logical Module LM-XCV2000E. It receives the audio PCM data from the Core Module and transfers to the DAC chip for output the audio signal.
Contents

Abstract………………………………………………………………………….…………....i
Contents………………………………………………………………………..……………. ii
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………v
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………….vi

Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………1
Chapter 2 MPEG AAC Algorithm………………………………………………………..…5
2.1 Noiseless Decoding……………………………………………………………………..6
2.2 Inverse quantization…………………………………………………………………….6
2.3 Stereo Processing……………………………………………………………………….7
2.4 Temporal Noise Shaping (TNS)………………………………………………………...7
2.5 Filterbank……………………………………………………………………………….8
Chapter 3 Re-quantization/Quantization Algorithms…………………………………….10
3. 1 Re-quantization Process………………………………………...…………………….10
3.1.1 Preview of Previous Re-quantization Algorithms………………………………...10
3.1.2 Concept of the Proposed Algorithm………………………….……………….…..12
3.1.3 Analysis of the amended function………………………………………………...15
3.1.4 Proposed algorithms for re-quantization………………………………………….17
3.2 Quantization Process…………………………………………………………………..21
Chapter 4 The Proposed Architecture…………………………………………..…………26
4.1 Fixed-Point Analysis…………………………………………………………………..26
4.2 The Proposed Architecture…………………………………………………………….29
4.2.1 Proposed system architecture……………………………………………………..29
4.2.2 Operations of the proposed architecture…………………………………….…….32
Chapter 5 Implementation of an Embedded AAC Decoder System……………………..35
5.1 Introduction of Hardware Platform………………………………………………...….35
5.1.1 About the Core Module 920T……………………………………………………..36
5.1.2 About the Integrator/AP……………………………………………………..…....37
5.1.3 About the ARM Logic Module……………………………………………………39
5.2 Introduction of Software Platform…………………………………………………….40
5.2.1 About the CodeWarrior IDE………………………………………………………40
5.2.2 About the ARM eXtended Debugger (AXD)……………………………………..44
5.3 The Design of System…………………………..……………………………………..46
5.3.1 Implementation Flow……………………………………………………………..46
5.3.2 Architecture of the Platform System……………………………………………...47
5.3.3 The DAC Circuit………………………………………………………………….49
5.4 The Improvement of Performance…………………………………………………….51
5.4.1 Using Multiplication Instead of Division…………………………………………51
5.4.2 Using Unsigned Division Instead of Signed Division…………………….………52
5.4.3 Loop Termination……………………………...……...…………………………..52
5.4.4 Cache Enable……………………………………………………………………...54
5.4.5 Using Lookup Tables………………………………….…………………………..55
5.4.6 Processor Core Clock (CORECLK)………………………………………………55
5.5 The Results…………………………………………………………………………….56
Chapter 6 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….60
References…………………………………………………………………………………...61
[1] ISO/IEC 11172-3 “Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s (Part 3: MPEG-Audio)”, 1992.
[2] ISO/IEC 13818-7 “Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio (MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding AAC)”, April, 1997.
[3] ISO/IEC 14496-3 “Information Technology – Coding of Audiovisual objects – Part 3: Audio – Subpart 4: Time/Frequency Coding)”, May, 1998.
[4] G.Soulodre, T. Grusec, M. Lavoie, and L. Thibault “Subjective Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Two-Channel Audio Codecs”, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 46, No 3, pp.164-177, March 1998.
[5] Keun-Sup Lee; Hyen-O Oh, “ High quality MPEG-audio layer III algorithm for a 16-bit DSP” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.2, pp. 205-208, 2001.
[6] Tsung-Han Tsai; Chuh-Chu Yen, “A high quality re-quantization/quantization method for MP3 and MPEG-4 AAC audio coding”, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.3, pp.851-854, 2002.
[7] ISO/IEC 13818-4 “Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information (Part 4: Compliance Test)”, March, 1996.
[8] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “ARM920T Technical Reference Manual”
[9] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “Integrator/CM940T, CM920T User Guide”

[10] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “Integrator/AP ASIC Development Motherboard User Guide”
[11] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “Integrator/LM-XCV600E+ User Guide”
[12] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “Muti-ICE User Guide”
[13] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “ARM Developer Suite Version 1.2”
[14] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “AXD and armsd Debuggers Guide”
[15] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. “CodeWarrior IDE Guide”
[16] ANALOG DEVICES, Digital-To-Analog Converters AD1856
[17] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. Application Note 34 “Writing Efficient C for ARM”
[18] Advanced RISC Machines Ltd. Application Note 53 “Configuring ARM Caches”
[19] The MPEG Homepage. http://drogo.cselt.stet.it/mpeg/.
[20] The ARM Homepage. http://www.arm.com
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