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研究生:高霈珊
研究生(外文):Pei-shan Kao
論文名稱:利用離散餘弦基礎之聲音浮水印達到室內定位技術
論文名稱(外文):Using DCT-Based Audio Watermark for Indoor Location System
指導教授:許獻聰許獻聰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-tsung Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:41
中文關鍵詞:離散餘弦變換音訊浮水印室內定位
外文關鍵詞:Discrete Cosine TransformAudio WatermarkIndoor Location System
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隨著全球衛星定位系統 (Global Position System) 的廣泛利用,人們對於定位導航的功能日漸依賴,當所要前往的目的地或是當下所處的位置是陌生時,便會非常希望有定位導航的服務,以提供方向的指引,由於建築物的遮蔽效應,GPS的訊號在室內會有明顯的衰弱現象,定位結果也會嚴重受到影響而失去精準度。因此如何發展一套良好的室內定位系統是近來許多相關研究的目標。
現有的室內定位技術多半使用無線接取技術 (Radio Access Technology) 做為傳輸媒介,例如:利用Wi-Fi訊號的三角定位法,或是利用藍芽技術的iBeacon等,然而這些技術都需要額外佈建相關設備,像是無線接取設備 (Access Point) 、藍芽接收裝置等,因此我們希望能夠透過另外一種傳輸媒介來完成室內定位的功能,並且避免花費額外佈建設備的成本。
我們想到聲音是日常生活中最常被用來傳遞訊息的媒介,例如:賣場中的廣告、便利商店的門鈴…等等,這些都是日常中隨時可以接觸到的聲音,且感到習以為常的存在,若能透過將資訊鑲嵌在這些常見的音樂當中,便可不用額外佈建任何設備,當使用者拿出手機接收音樂後,可透過我們所設計的應用程式,輕易得知自己的所在位置,完成室內定位的目的。
本論文提出一套提供精準室內定位結果的技術並予以實現,藉由音訊浮水印的方式,將所在位置的經緯度資訊鑲嵌在音樂或廣告當中,使用者可以透過利用智慧手機錄音的方式接收音訊,同時應用程式可以提取隱藏資資並即時顯示在手機上,透過這套系統,使用者可以輕易得自己的位置資訊,完成室內定位的應用。

With the wide using of Global Positioning System, people more and more rely on positioning and navigation functions. When we want to go to somewhere we have never been to, we would like to have positioning and navigation functions for giving directions. Due to the shadowing effect of the building, GPS signals will be attenuated significantly and positioning results will be affected seriously. How to develop an accurate indoor location system is the goal of many relevant studies in recent years.
Most of existing indoor location techniques use radio access technologies as the transmission medium, such as the Geometrical Triangulation of using Wi-Fi and iBeacon of using Bluetooth, etc. However, these techniques still exist the problem of location accuracy, as well as the need of providing additional related equipment. As the result, we hope that we can through another kind of medium to achieve accurate indoor location function and it can avoid the extra cost of devices.
The most common medium for transmitting message in daily life is the sound. For example, the advertisement audio in the supermarket and the doorbell in the convenient store, etc. These sound are accustomed to be heard. If we can through embed information into these music, we don’t need to provide any additional devices. When users use their smart phones to record the audio, they can easily know their location by extracting the embedded information. The task of indoor location is completed.
This thesis proposes a new technique for indoor location system. By audio watermark, we embed the longitude and latitude information into the music. After users receive the audio from their smart phones, and extract it by the application, they can get the current location information and then instantly display on their devices to complete the application of indoor location.

中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
CONTENT IV
LIST OF FIGURES VI
LIST OF TABLES VII
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. RELATED WORKS 3
2-1 The Background of Indoor Location 3
2-2 The Applications and Requirements of Audio Watermark 5
2-3 The Techniques of Audio Watermark 5
2-3-1 Time-Domain Embedded Techniques 6
2-3-2 Frequency-Domain Embedded Techniques 7
2-3-3 DCT-Based Audio Watermark 8
3. AUDIO WATERMARK INDOOR LOCATION SYSTEM 11
3-1 The System Architecture 12
3-2 The Encoder 12
3-2-1 Synchronization Embedded Scheme 13
3-2-2 Location Data Embedded Scheme 16
3-3 The Decoder 17
3-3-1 Synchronization Scanning and Extraction Scheme 17
3-3-2 Location Data Extraction Scheme 19
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 21
4-1 Experimental Environment Setup 21
4-2 Experimental Results 21
5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS 26
6. REFERENCE 27

[1] Kimmon Kalliola, “High Accuracy Indoor Positioning Based on BLE”, April 27 2011.
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