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研究生:黃琪洛
研究生(外文):Chi-Lo Huang
論文名稱:台灣東北海域基隆陸棚地質構造分析
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of the geological structure in the Keelung Shelf, off northeast Taiwan
指導教授:許樹坤許樹坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Kun Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:地球科學學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:台灣東北海域基隆陸棚海底山崩科學漁探儀多音束水深底質剖面側掃聲納影像多頻道反射震測
外文關鍵詞:Offshore Northeastern TaiwanKeelung ShelfSubmarine LandslideScientific Echo SounderMulti-beam Echo SounderSub-Bottom ProfilerSide-Scan SonarMulti-Channel Seismic
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台灣東北海域位於沖繩海槽之最西側,屬於琉球隱沒系統中的弧後擴張盆地北緣。海槽內分布許多正斷層、海底火山以及熱液噴泉,顯示南沖繩海槽仍處於張裂活動相當旺盛的階段。台灣北部人口眾多且分布密集,而該區域容易遭受隱沒帶地震、海底山崩與海嘯所引發的災害。為了瞭解台灣東北海域的地質構造與海底山崩之潛勢,本研究收集及分析科學漁探儀、多音束水深、底拖側掃聲納系統與多頻道反射震測資料。
研究結果顯示基隆陸棚上有許多東北-西南走向的地形線性構造分布,該走向大致與歐亞板塊與菲律賓海板塊的聚合方向垂直,接近台灣主要山脈走向。在基隆陸棚震測剖面可以觀察到許多正斷層大都可向淺部連接到地形線性構造,顯示此區域正處於拉張的應力狀態,但在震測剖面雙程走時1 ~ 1.5秒,仍可發現擠壓褶皺之構造,推測是早期台灣碰撞造山所遺留的構造,如今因碰撞擠壓已變成弧後盆地拉張,因而呈現構造反轉作用的現象。海床逸氣現象主要發現在龜山島附近與棉花峽谷兩側,這些海床逸氣現象可能與火山活動較為相關,而棉花峽谷兩側的逸氣尺度較大,推測是因為下方有一走向滑移斷層,熱液氣體可以沿該地殼破裂處向上噴出。基隆陸坡之坡度約為5° ~ 15°,而部分峽谷區之坡度可達25° ~ 30°。過去的海底山崩事件多發生於坡度較大的位置,應該與邊坡不穩定有關。
整合資料分析後,本研究推測未來可能有四區容易於陸坡發生海底山崩,山崩區的水深約200 ~ 400公尺處。而研究區的海底山崩總面積可達390平方公里,而總崩塌體積可達到18立方公里。

Located behind the Ryukyu islands, the offshore area of the northeast Taiwan is subjected to the extension of the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin, Normal faults, submarine volcanoes and gas seeps are distributed in the trough, indicating the south Okinawa Trough is very active. Considering the dense population in northern Taiwan, the coastal area of northern Taiwan is under menace of natural hazards from potential large earthquakes and tsunamis. To better understand the seabed features and the potential submarine landslides off northern Taiwan, we have conducted and analyzed marine geophysical surveys off NE Taiwan.
In the Keelung Shelf, the seafloor edifices are generally NE-SW trending. The NE-SW orientation is coherent with the trend of the Taiwan mountain belt and perpendicular to the convergent direction of the Philippine Sea Plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. Observed in the Keelung Shelf, the normal faults are due to the back-arc extension. However, structural folds exist in the deeper strata. We suggest that the folds could be the inherited from the early Taiwan orogeny. Using scientific echo sounder, we have found 18 gas flares near the Turtle Island and 21 gas flares around the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon. Those flare could be related to the back-arc volcanism. The flares near the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon could be also related to a strike-slip faulting, facilitating the upward migration of the volcanic gas. The continental slope is general about 5° ~ 10° of the Keelung Shelf; however, some slope could be reach 25° ~ 30° at some internal gullies or canyons. Submarine landslides are located at steeper gradient. We suggest that there are four potential submarine landslide areas located at the continental slope of water depth 200 ~ 400 meters. The total volume of potential submarine landslides could be 18 cubic kilometers.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
一、前言 1
1-1研究動機與目的 1
1-2研究策略 2
二、區域概況 11
2-1地質背景 11
2-2既有資料 12
2-3測線規劃 12
三、研究方法與資料處理 23
3-1科學漁探儀 (EK60 Scientific echo sounder) 23
3-1-1基本原理 23
3-1-2處理方法 23
3-2多音束聲納測深儀 (Multi-beam Echo Sounder) 24
3-2-1基本原理 24
3-2-2處理方法 26
3-3底拖側掃聲納系統 (Sub-Bottom Profiler & Side-Scan Sonar) 26
3-3-1基本原理 26
3-3-2處理方法 26
3-4多頻道反射震測 (Multi-Channel Seismic) 27
3-4-1基本原理 27
3-4-2處理方法 28

四、研究結果與綜合討論 61
4-1研究結果 61
4-1-1海床逸氣現象 61
4-1-2地形線性構造 62
4-1-3海底山崩分布 62
4-1-4地形坡度分析 62
4-2綜合討論 63
五、結論 85
參考文獻 87
附錄A 91
附錄B 97
附錄C 102
附錄D 111

英文部分
[1] Ai, F., Kuhlmann, J., Huhn K., Strasser, M. and Kopf, A., Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences, Vol. 37 of the series Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, pp. 225-235, “Submarine slope stability assessment of the Central Mediterranean Continental Margin: The Gela Basin”, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2013.
[2] Boggs, S. Jr., Wang, W.-C., Lewis, F. S. and Chen, J.-C., “Sediment properties and water characteristics of the Taiwan shelf and slope”, Science Reports of the National Taiwan University ACTA Oceanographica Taiwanica, No. 10, pp. 10-49, 1979.
[3] Chen, C.-H and Shen, J. J.-S., “A refined historical record of volcanic eruptions around Taiwan: tectonic implications in the arc-continent collision area”, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 331-343, 2005.
[4] Chu, C.-J., Lee, C.-T. and Teng, L. S., “Structural features and Quaternary tectonics of the Chinshan fault, northern Taiwan”, Journal of the Geological Society of China, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 25-42, 1998.
[5] Deffontaines, B., Liu C.-S., Angelier, J., Lee, C.-T., Sibuet, J.-C., Tsai, Y.-B., Lallemand, S., Lu, C.-Y., Lee, C.-S., Hsu, S.-K., Chu, H.-T., Lee, J.-C., Pathier, E., Chen, R.-F., Cheng C.-T., Cheng W.-L., Lin C.-C. and Hsu H.-H., “Preliminary Neotectonic Map of Onshore-offshore Taiwan”, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Supplementary Issue, pp. 339-349, 2001.
[6] EdgeTech: 2000: Combined Side Scan Sonar & Sub-bottom Profiler, link by: http://www.edgetech.com/products/side-scan-sonar/2000-combined-side-scan-sonar-sub-bottom-profiler/
[7] Global CMT Web Page, link by: http://www.globalcmt.org/
[8] Hampton, M. A., Lee H. J. and Locat J., “Submarine landslides”, Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 34, pp. 33–59, 1996.
[9] Hsiao, L.-Y., Huang, S.-T., Teng, L. S. and Lin K.-A., “Structural characteristics of the southern Taiwan-Sinzi folded zone”, Petroelum Geology of Taiwan, No. 32, pp. 133-153., 1998.
[10] Hsu S.-K. and Sibuet, J.-C., “Is Taiwan the result of arc-continent or arc-continent or arc-arc collision?”, Earth Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 136, pp. 315-324, 1995.
[11] Hsu, S.-K., Sibuet, J.-C., Monti, S., Shyu, C.-T. and Liu, C.-S., “Transition between the Okinawa Trough Backarc Extension and the Taiwan Collision: New Insights on the Southernmost Ryukyu Subduction Zone”, Marine Geophysical Researches, Vol. 18, pp. 163-187, 1996.
[12] Huang, C.-Y., Shyu, C.-T., Lin, S. B., Lee, T.-Q. and Sheu, D. D., “Marine geology in the arc-continent collision zone off southeastern Taiwan: Implication for Late Neogene evolution of the Coastal Range”, Marine Geology, Vol. 107, Issue 3, pp. 183-212, 1992.
[13] Huang, S.-T., Ting, H.-H., Chen, R.-C., Chi, W.-R., Hu, C.-C. and Shen, H.-C., “Basinal Framework and tectonic Evolution of Offshore Northern Taiwan”, Petroleum geology of Taiwan, No. 27, 47-72, 1992.
[14] Kuro, H., 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Mariana, Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world including solfatara fields, Napoli. International Association of Volcanology, pp. 1-5.
[15] Lee C.-S., Shor Jr. G. G., Bibee L. D., Lu R. S. and Hilde T. W. C., “Okinawa Trough: Origin of a Back-arc Basin”, Marine Geology, Vol. 35, pp. 219-241, 1980.
[16] Sibuet, J.-C., Letouzey J., Barbier F., Charvet J., Foucher J.-P., Hilde T. W. C., Kimura M., Chiao L.-Y., Marsset B., Muller C. and Stèphan J.-F. ”Back Arc Extension in the Okinawa Trough”, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 92, No. B13, pp. 14041-14063, 1987.
[17] Sibuet, J.-C. and Hsu S.-K., “Geodynamics of the Taiwan arc-arc collision”, Tectonophysics, Vol. 274, pp. 221-251, 1997.
[18] Sibuet, J.-C., Deffontaines, B., Hsu S.-K., Thareau N., Le Formal J.-P., Liu, C.- S. and ACT party, “Okinawa trough backarc basin : Early tectonic and magmatic evolution". Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. B12, pp. 30245-30267, 1998.
[19] Simard: Simard EK 60 Scientific Echo Sounder manul, link by: https://www.simrad.com/www/01/nokbg0240.nsf/AllWeb/A25148D8E9F00D0DC12570DE0050A7CB?OpenDocument
[20] Teng, L. S., “Extensional collapse of the northern Taiwan mountain belt”, Geology, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp.949, 1996

中文部分
[21] 王鋒、劉昌森和章振銓, 「中國古籍中的地震海嘯紀錄」 ,中國地震,第21第3期,437-443頁,2005年9月。
[22] 馬國鳳, 「台灣鄰近海域因地震誘發海底山崩之海嘯危害度機率分析」,行政院原子能委員會,計畫期中報告,民國104年。
[23] 李易隆, 「台灣東北部海域海底火山與熱液噴泉之研究」 ,國立臺灣海洋大學,碩士論文,民國94年。
[24] 李憲忠:Real-time Computational Seismology earthquake report (RCS), link by: http://rcs.earth.sinica.edu.tw/
[25] 范美琪, 「南沖繩海槽上部地殼的速度構造」 ,國立台灣大學,碩士論文,民國101年。
[26] 馬中平, 「地形線性分西對基隆海谷成因之探討研究」 ,國立台灣大學,碩士論文,民國84年。
[27] 俞何興:文化部台灣大百科辭條-海底峽谷。民國98年9月,取自http://nrch.culture.tw/twpedia.aspx?id=3367。
[28] 國立台灣海洋大學研究船船務中心:探測儀器簡介。取自http://www.or2.ntou.edu.tw/equipment-new.php

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