(3.235.11.178) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/26 03:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃適謙
研究生(外文):Shih-Chien Huang
論文名稱:卵礫石層直接剪力試驗與垂直平鈑載重試驗之離散元素法數值模擬
指導教授:黃文昭黃文昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chao Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:顆粒鍵結直接剪力試驗垂直平鈑載重試驗離散元素法
外文關鍵詞:Bonding particleDirect shear testPlate load testDiscrete element method
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:238
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:26
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本文旨在以數值模型進行大型試驗之模擬與參數探討。直接剪力試驗為簡易且可快速獲取土壤剪力強度的常用方法,而垂直平鈑載重試驗能觀測現地土壤的承載能力,根據Prandtl(1921)基礎承載理論,土壤內摩擦角為估計基礎承載力的重要依據。
褚炳麟(1996)研究將卵礫石層依平鈑載重試驗應力-沉陷關係,分成三類。第一類,呈線性關係,卵礫石顆粒相互接觸,第二類,僅部分卵礫石相互接觸,若稍加夯實承載力即大幅提升,第三類,顆粒間沒有明顯接觸,與細顆粒土壤行為類似。而宜蘭牛鬥橋結果呈上凹趨勢,似乎沒有可分類情況,故於本研究中加以探討。
由於大尺寸現地試驗中,土壤的受力行為不易直接觀察,並且較難以室內縮尺實驗表現。因此,本研究以離散元素法進行模擬分析,使用PFC2d (Particle flow code2d)程式。本研究首先擬合宜蘭舊牛鬥橋試驗之結果,以確認模型之正確性,後續探討微觀參數對巨觀行為之影響,而後利用顆粒旋轉判斷破壞弧範圍。
試驗結果顯示:(1)牛鬥橋現地平鈑載重試驗之應力-沉陷量關係,其上凹趨勢屬尚未達降伏部份,持續加載後方有明顯尖峰值與殘留應力區間產生。(2)藉由紀錄顆粒旋轉量,發現卵礫石層之破壞弧將延伸超過規範之基坑寬的4倍鈑寬。(3)對於卵礫石層而言,直剪試驗獲得之內摩擦角與垂直平鈑載重試驗之極限承載力,受輸入顆粒勁度影響較大。

This research aims to simulate in-situ large-scale experiments and discuss the relationship of input parameters by using numerical models. Direct shear test is a general method which can quickly obtain the soil’s properties. The vertical plate load test can directly obtain the ground’s bearing capacity. According to Prandtl(1921)’s theory of foundation bearing capacity, the inner friction angle is important to estimate the ground’s bearing capacity.
Bing-Lin Chu (1996) classified gravel deposits into three types based on vertical plate load test’s stress-displacement results. The first type, gravel particles are in contact with each other and stress-displacement curve is almost a linear line. The second type, only a few gravel particles contact with each other. After being compacted, the bearing capacity will get very high. The third type, nearly no gravel particles are in contact with each other. But the Niu-Dou Bridge’s result is a concave upward curve which is close to none of upper mentioned types.
For micro-mechanical aspect of the soils under above in-situ condition, it is very difficult to observe the grain particle’s behavior. Therefore, this research using PFC2d (Particle flow code2d) program to simulate in-situ tests based on the results from Yilan old Niu-Dou Bridge.
Research results showed that: (1) Plate load test result’s concave curve is elastic part of whole test. By adding more loads will get full stress-displacement relationship with peak stress and residual stress. (2) By calculate the amounts of particle’s rotation, it can determine the failure zone. The results showed the failure zone is larger than excavation width defined by standard (3) The inner friction angel and bearing capacity are greatly influenced by the particle stiffness.

Abstract I
摘要 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究方法與目的 2
1.3研究內容 3
1.4模擬現地資料流程 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 簡述台灣卵礫石層地質背景與分佈 6
2.2 台灣卵礫石層一般特性 8
2.3 簡述宜蘭縣舊牛鬥橋試驗計畫 9
2.3.1 橋址地質 9
2.3.2 現地大型直接剪力試驗 11
2.3.3 垂直平鈑載重試驗 13
2.4以離散元素法模擬直剪試驗 15
2.4.1直接剪力試驗 15
2.4.2直剪試驗模擬 17
2.4.3直剪試驗之體積與孔隙率變化 18
2.4.4直剪試驗之剪動觀察 20
2.4.5 顆粒摩擦對顆粒材料剪切行為影響 22
2.5淺基礎承載理論 24
2.5.1淺基礎破壞型式 26
2.6垂直平鈑載重試驗 28
2.6.1卵礫石地層之試驗結果 29
2.6.2探討垂直平鈑載重試驗鈑之尺寸效應 32
2.6.3以數值模擬探討淺基礎受載重下之力學行為 33
2.7顆粒鍵結模型 36
2.7.1利用鍵結模型觀察砂岩微觀性質 36
2.7.2以離散元素法模擬顆粒破碎 37
第三章 研究方法 39
3.1離散元素法 39
3.2 Particle flow code 2D 模式簡介 40
3.2.1接觸勁度模式(Contact-stiffness model) 41
3.2.2滑動模式(Slip model) 41
3.2.3鍵結模式(Bonding model) 42
3.3數值模型建立流程 43
3.3.1直剪試驗之模型建立 43
3.3.2垂直平鈑載重試驗之模型建立 45
3.3.3設定模型參數 46
3.3.4顆粒填入方式 48
3.3.5基本顆粒鍵結模型 49
3.3.6直剪試驗觀測項目 51
3.3.7 垂直平鈑載重試驗觀測項目 53
3.3.8加載正向力 55
3.3.9選定試驗速度 55
3.4 模型資料分析處理 57
3.4.1直剪試驗剪應力計算 57
3.4.2垂直平鈑載重試驗應力-沉陷量計算 58
3.4.3垂直平鈑載重試驗微觀變化紀錄 59
3.4.4剪動模擬速度的計算 64
3.4.5 電腦配備與模型花費時間 65
第四章 宜蘭舊牛鬥橋模擬試驗結果 66
4.1離散元素法擬合舊牛鬥橋現地資料 66
4.1.1擬合模型基本顆粒 66
4.1.2直接剪力試驗之數值分析 69
4.1.3垂直平鈑載重試驗之數值分析與現地結果比較 71
4.1.4垂直平鈑載重試驗數值探討鈑寬尺寸效應 73
4.1.5垂直平鈑載重試驗數值探討顆粒尺寸效應 76
第五章 改變輸入參數探討對試驗結果影響 78
5.1試驗模型簡述 78
5.1.1擬合模型基本顆粒 78
5.2直接剪力試驗基本結果 79
5.2.1直接剪力試驗結果展示 79
5.2.2改變顆粒勁度對摩擦角之影響 81
5.2.3不同摩擦係數對摩擦角之影響 83
5.2.4直接剪力試驗計算臨界狀態摩擦角 85
5.3垂直平鈑載重試驗基本結果 91
5.3.1垂直平鈑載重試驗結果展示 91
5.3.2不同顆粒勁度對垂直平鈑載重試驗影響 93
5.3.3不同摩擦係數對垂直平鈑載重試驗之影響 95
5.3.4利用承載曲線對卵礫石層特徵分類 97
第六章 101
6.1 結論 101
6.2 未來展望 103
參考文獻 104
附錄一 問與答 111
附錄二 模擬試驗結果 112

1.Abd-Ali, M., S., "Evaluation of Allawable Bearing Capacity of Soil by Plate Bearing Test. A Case Study in Al-Diwaniyah City," Basrah Journal for Engineering Science, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 101-111 (2013)
2.Barden, L., Ismail, H. and Tong, P., "Plane Strain Deformation of Granular Material at Low and High Pressure," Geotechnique, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 441-452 (1969)
3.Boeles, J. E., Foundation analysis and design, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill Education, New York, USA (1988)
4.Bhavikatti, K. K., Basic Civil Engineering, New Age International, Daryaganj, New Delhi, India (2010)
5.Bishop, A. W., "Correspondence on shear characteristics of a saturated silt, measured in triaxial compression," Geotechnique, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 43-45 (1954)
6.Caquot, A., Equilibre des massifs `a frottement interne., Gauthier-Villars, Paris, French (1934)
7.Cundall, P. A., and Strack, O. D. L., "A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies," Geotechnique, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 47-65 (1979)
8.Calvetti, F., Combe, G., and Lanier, J., "Experimental micromechanical analysis of a 2D granular material: relation between structure evolution and loading path," Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional Materials, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 121-163 (1997)
9.Consoli, N. C., Schnaid, F. and Militiitsky, J., "Interpretation of plate load tests on residual soil site," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 9, pp. 857-867 (1998)

10.Chang, Y. Y., Lee, C. J., Huang, W. C., Lin, M. J., Hung, W. Y. and Lin, Y. H., "Use of centrifuge experiments and discrete element analysis to model the reverse fault slip," International Journal of Civil Engineering (2013)
11. Dounias, G. T., Potts, D. M., "Numerical Analysis of Drained Direct and Simple Shear Tests," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 119, No. 12, pp. 1870-1891 (1993)
12.Das, B. M., Principles of geotechnical engineering , 6th edition, Thomson Learning, Nashville, TN, USA (2006)
13.Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp., "Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual Version 6.9" (2009)
14.Horne, M. R., "The behaviour of an assembly of rotund, rigid, cohesionless particles III," Proc. Roy. Soc. Land, Vol. 310, No. 1500, pp. 21-34 (1969)
15. Hsieh, Y. M., Li, H. H., Huang, T. H. and Jeng, F. S., "Interpretations on how the macroscopic mechanical behavior of sandstone affected by microscopic properties—Revealed by bonded-particle model," Engineering Geology, Vol. 99, pp. 1-10 (2008)
16.Huang, W. C., Sung, C. Y., Liao, H. Y. and Chu, S. S., "Micromechanical behavior of granular materials indirect shear modeling," Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 38, No.4, pp.469-480 (2015)
17.Kruyt, N. P., and Rothenburg, L., "Shear strength, dilatancy, energy and dissipation in quasi-static deformation of granular materials," Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, No. 7, pp. 1-13 (2006)
18.Lee, W. F., Lin, C. Y., and Chen, J. W., "Applications of Dilative Behavior in Marine Soil," Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Haeaii, U.S.A., pp. 366-371 (2003)
19.Lobo-Guerrero, S. and Vallejo , L. E., "Discrete Element Method Evaluation of Granular Crushing Under Direct Shear Test Conditions," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, pp. 1295-1300 (2005)
20.Matheson, G. M., "Relationship between Compacted Rockfill Density and Gradation," Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol.11, No.12 (1986)
21.Masson, S. and Martinez, J., "Micromechanical Analysis of The Shear Behaviro of A Granular Material," Journal of Engineering Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 10, pp. 1007-1016 (2001)
22.Maeda, K., Hirabayashi, H.,Ohmura, A., "Micromechanical influence of grain properties on deformation-failure behavior of granular media by DEM," Proceeding of the International Symposium on Geomechanics and Geotechnics of Particulate Media, Ube, Japan (2006)
23.Prandtl, L., " Über die eindringungsfestigkeit plastischer baustoffe und die festigkeit von schneiden," Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 15-20 (1921)
24.Punmia, B. C., Building Construction, Laxmi Publications LTD., New Delhi, India (1993)
25.Potyondy, D. O., Cundall, P. A., "A bonded-particle model for rock," International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 8, pp. 1329-1364 (2004)
26.Skinner, A. E., "A note on the influence of inter-particle friction on the shearing strength of a random assembly of spherical particles," Geotechnique, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 150-157 (1969)
27.Saasa, A. S., and Townsend, F. C., "State of the Art: Laboratory Strength Testing of Soils, in Laboratory Shear Strength of Soil," STP 740 ASTM, Philadelphia PA USA, pp. 7-77 (1981)
28.Suiker, A. S. J., Fleck, N. A., "Frictional collapse of granular assemblies," Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 350-358 (2004)
29.Terzaghi, K., Theoretical soil mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1943)
30.Thornton, C., "Numerical simulations of deviatoric shear deformation of granular media," Geotechnique, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 319-329 (2000)
31.Teodoru, I. B. and Toma, I. O., "Numerical Analyses of Plate Loading Test," Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, Constructions Architecture Section, LV (1), pp. 57-66 (2009)
32.Vesic, A. S., "Analysis of ultimate loads of shallow foundations," Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. SM1, pp. 45-73 (1973)
33.Vardoulakis, I. and Sulem, J., Bifurcation analysis in Geomechanics, Blakie Academic & Professional, London (1995)
34.Wang, J., Dove, J. E., and Gutierrez, M., "Discrete-continuum analysis of shear banding in the direct shear test," Geotechnique, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 513-526 (2007)
35.Wang, J. and Gutierrez, M., "Discrete element simulations of direct shear specimen scale effects," Geotechnique, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 395-409 (2010)
36.Yimsiri, S. and Soga, K., "Micromechanics-based stress-strain behaviour of soils at small strains," Geotechnique, Vol. 50, pp. 559-571 (2000)
37.Zhang, L. and Thornton, C. "A numerical examination of the direct shear test," Geotechnique, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp.343-354 (2007)
38.洪如江,「複合土工程特性之初步研究」,台大工程學刊,第23期,第1-12頁 (1978)。
39.陳修、顧承宗、陳錦清,「不連續變形分析法模擬卵礫石層開挖行為研究」,國際卵礫石層地下工程研討會,第31-40 頁 (1995)。
40.蔡明欣、陳錦清、王銘德,「台灣西部地區卵礫石層現地抗剪強度研究」,國際卵礫石層地下工程研討會,第21-30 頁 (1995)。
41.司徒銳文、黃崇仁,「台中大肚山台地卵礫石層承載特性調查實例」,國際卵礫石層地下工程研討會,第41-50 頁 (1995)。
42.張吉佐、陳逸駿、嚴世傑、蔡宜璋,「台灣地區中北部卵礫石層工程性質及施工探討」,地工技術,第55卷,第35-46 頁 (1996)。
43.褚炳麟、潘進明、張國雄,「台灣西部卵礫石層現地之大地工程性質」,地工技術,第55卷,第47-58 頁 (1996)。
44.鄧屬予,「台灣卵礫石層現地的地質背景」,地工技術,第55卷,第5-24 頁 (1996)。
45.王文祥,「台灣卵礫石層現地的地質背景」,地工技術,第55卷,第5-24 頁 (1996)。
46.內政部營建署,「建築物基礎構造設計規範」,第四章 (2001)。
47.林志穎,「粒狀土壤的剪脹及膠結性質」,博士論文,國立成功大學土木工程研究所,臺南 (2003)。
48.譚凱華,「大顆粒效應對飽和砂質土壤液化相關行為影響之研究」,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學營建工程研究所,台中 (2005)。
49.柳飛、楊俊杰、劉紅軍、豐澤康男、堀井宣幸、伊藤和也,「離心模型試驗模擬平鈑載荷試驗研究」,巖土工程學報,第29卷,第6期,第880-885頁 (2007)。
50.翁孟嘉、童士恒、俞肇球、蔡源福、彭詩容、李宏輝,「以顆粒觀點評估淺基礎承載力之研究」,中華民國大地工程學會,大地工程研討會,溪頭(2007)。
51.徐肖峰、魏厚振、孟慶山、韋昌富、李永和,「粗粒含量對礫類土直剪過程中強度與變形特性影響的離散元模擬研究」,工程地質學報,第21卷,第2期,第311-316頁 (2007)。
52.邱俊翔、柯永彥、許尚逸、蔡煜青,「牛鬥橋現地實驗-現地大地試驗與沉箱基礎側推試驗」,國家地震工程研究中心,報告編號:NCREE-11-014,第207-225頁 (2011)。
53.傅紹倫,「牛鬥橋基礎側向荷載試驗之模擬分析」,碩士論文,國立台灣大學土木工程研究所,台北 (2012)。
54.宋丘言,「使用離散元素法進行乾砂直剪試驗模擬」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,中壢 (2012)。
55.薛亞東、劉忠強、黃宏偉,「砂礫石混合物抗剪強度特性試驗研究」,土木建築與環境工程,第34卷,第6期,第75-76頁 (2012)。
56.廖泓韻,「以微觀角度探討顆粒狀材料在直剪試驗下之力學行為」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,中壢 (2013)。
57.劉文智,「以數值模擬層狀岩石巴西試驗」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,中壢 (2013)。
58.戴北冰、楊峻、周翠英,「顆粒摩擦對顆粒剪切行為影響的試驗研究」,力學學報,第45卷,第3期,第375-383頁 (2013)。
59.張光宗、陳宥序、鄭敏杰,「以數值方法探討卵礫石層的力學行為」,中華水土保持學報,第45卷,第95-102 頁(2014)。

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔