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研究生:彭旭頤
研究生(外文):Hsyi-Yi Peng
論文名稱:不同棲地臺灣野兔(Lepussinensisformosanus)之食性及糞生菌研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of Formosan hare''s (Lepus sinensis formosanus) feeding habits in two different habitats
指導教授:呂光洋呂光洋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang-Yang Lue
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立師範大學
系所名稱:生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1993
畢業學年度:81
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:臺灣野兔食草養份咬食頻率糞生菌相
外文關鍵詞:Formosan Harefood plantsfeeding marksnutritional content
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臺灣野兔(Lepus sinensis formosanus) 是臺灣特有亞種之夜行性草
食動物,廣泛分佈於台灣全島各地。本研究以翠翠谷及社頂兩個不同棲地
,針對台灣野兔的食性、食草養份、咬食頻率和糞生菌相等作一研究,以
瞭解台灣野兔食草之養份含量及野兔對食草之偏好,和糞生菌種類之差異
及消長情形。
自 1992 年 3 月至 1993 年 2 月,定期至兩個樣區調查與記錄野兔
之食痕、食痕之部位及離地高度,同時採集六種野兔食草及排遺﹐帶回實
驗室分析其熱含量、氮含量及纖維含量之多寡。結果六種野兔食草所含之
養份,依棲地及食草之不同而有所差異。六種食草其熱含量值,約在 3945
.0±260.7卡至 4663.1±165.3卡之間,,以春季及冬季較高。而其氮含量
值,約在 2.01±0.26﹪至4.16±0.80﹪之間,,其中錢浦、日本針藺及碗
蕨以以冬季較高,大吳風草、含羞草和長穗木以春季較高。至於其纖維含
量值,約在 8.2±0.7﹪至19.2±3.1﹪之間,其中翠翠谷之四種食草均以
夏季為最高。而社頂之二種食草,則以秋季為最高。
而食草養份含量之季節變化,有的有季節差異,有的則無。不同食草
間之變化亦同。至於野兔之食痕,以咬食植物之嫩葉及嫩芽者居多。其食
痕之離地高度, 以離地15-30cm之高度的記錄最多。
臺灣野兔咬食植物之頻率,與該植物內所含之氮含量的多寡間,有顯
著之相關性存在。在不同之季節,野兔咬食植物之頻率,並非僅與植物內
之某單項養份呈相關,有時亦與植物內之他項或多項養份呈相關。臺灣野
兔排遺中殘存之氮含量,其平均值約 1.69±0.23﹪至2.17±0.35﹪之間,
在評斷野兔之食草品質時,其可信程度並不強。
台灣野兔排遺上之糞生菌,由翠翠谷採集者, 鑑定出8 種。而社頂採
集者,鑑定出 7 種;其中有六種相同。但 Podosordaria tulasnei及Chae
-tomium sp. 兩種,只在翠翠谷之台灣野兔排遺中發現,而Sordaria fimi
-cola 則只出現於社頂之台灣野兔排遺中。而糞生菌之消長次序,依序為
結合菌綱(Zygomycetes)之真菌、子囊菌綱(Ascomycetes)之真菌、擔子菌
綱之真菌(Basidiomycetes)。不完全菌綱(Fungi Imperfecti)之真菌則不
規則出現。
Formosan Hare is a noctrunal herbivore and an endemic subspe-
cies to Taiwan. Its distribution range covers all over the is-
lands. The aim of this research is to understand (1) the nutri-
tional variation of their food plants, (2) the feeding marks on
the food plants,(3) the population succession of dung fungi. This
study was conducted in two sites, i.e, Chay Chay valley of Yamg-
ming Shan National Park and Sheding of Kenting National Park.
From March, 1992 to February, 1993, the researchers went to
the two sampling sites monthly to investigate the hare''s feeding
marks on plants. Meanwhile, we also collected six species of food
plants and feces of Formosan hares for analysis, including calo-
ric content, nitrogen content and crude fiber. Most of feeding
marks were found 15-30cm above the soil surface, and they browsed
mainly on sprouts and young leaves.
Results showed that the nutritional value of the six food
plants varies with plant species and habitats. The caloric con-
tent of the six plants ranged from 3945.0±260.7 to 4663.1±165.3
cal/g. It was higher in winter and spring. The nitrogen content
ranged from 2.01±0.26﹪ to 4.16±0.80﹪, of which Juncus lesche-
naultii, Eleocharis congesta and Denstaedtia scalra were higher
in winter, while which of Ligularia japonica, Mimosa pudica L.
and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. were higher in spring.
As for crude fiber, the percentage ranged from 8.2±0.7﹪to 19.2
±3.1﹪, of which all the four food plants found in Chay Chay va-
lley was higher in spring, while two food plants in Sheding was
higher in fall. The nitrogen content of feces ranged from 1.69±
0.23﹪ to 2.17±0.35﹪.
There is a strong correlation between the feeding marks of
Formosan hares and nitrogen content of food plants. Our results
showed that nitrogen content is not a good indicator for plant
quality for hares.
There were eight species of dung fungi identified in feces
collected from Chay Chay valley, and seven species from Sheding.
However, six species of fungi were shared by feces collected from
both study sites. Two species of fungi, Podosordaria tulasnei and
Chaetomium sp., were only found in feces collected in Chay Chay
valley, while Sordaria fimicola was only found in Sheding. The
order of succession first was Zygomycetes, followed by Ascomy-
cetes and Basidiomycetes. The fungi of Imperfecti sometimes
appeared in different succession periods.
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