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研究生:周至寬
研究生(外文):Chou, Ji-Kwan
論文名稱:臺灣花卉種媒真菌之檢測與防治
論文名稱(外文):Detection and control of flower seed-borne fungi in Taiwan
指導教授:吳文希吳文希引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu, Wen-Shi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:植物病蟲害學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1993
畢業學年度:81
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:花卉種子百日草化學防治生物防治
外文關鍵詞:flower seedAlternaria zinniaezinniachemical controlbiological control
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以吸濕紙法檢測本省22個花卉種子樣本,共發現24種真菌,而A. car-
thami、C. chlorocephalum 、C. senegalensis 、D. purpureofuscus、
D . frumetacei及P. chartarum則係在臺灣首次發現之真菌 。經病原性
的測定,A. carthami、C. dematium、C. lunata、D. rostrata及
Phoma sp.均為病原菌,分別會降低百日草、雞冠花、千日紅 、孔雀草等
種子的發芽率或造成幼苗壞疽及倒伏。A. carthami可經由百日草種子傳
播,依據菌落形態,產孢方式,分生孢子形態及大小與病原性,A.
carthami實有別於A. zinniae。A. carthami 在百日草上發芽產生附著器
後,很快便會侵入葉片組織中, 一旦侵入,葉肉細胞便會迅速的崩潰瓦
解。於是在葉片上形成病徵;活體外10ppm之difenoconazole,
flusilazol,hexaconazole 及pyri- fenox對 A. carthami 生長均呈抑
制效果。經分離篩選出之二種 Bacillus spp.拮抗菌除會抑制病原生長外
,並能使病原孢子發芽管膨大變形;在溫室及田間對A. carthami引起之百
日草葉斑病均有顯著之防治效果,甚至比藥劑mancozeb及hexaconazole處
理者之效果顯著。
Twenty tow flowerseed samples colleted from local seed compani-
es were used for detecting the presence of seed-borne fungi.
The blotter method was applied in this study. Totally , 24
different fungi were detected from these 22 seed samples. A.
carthami, C. senegalenesis, D. purpureofuscus,D. frumetacei
and P. chartarum were newly recorded in Taiwan. A. carthami,
C. dematium, C.lunata ,D. rostrata and Phoma sp. were proved to
be pathogenic. They de- creased the germination rate
andhindered the seedling development of zinnia, celeosia,
globe amaranth and French marigold, respec- tively. A. carthami
was proved to be a seed-transmitted pathogen. Bas- ed upon the
colony, hape and size of conidia, as well as pathoge- nicity,
A. carthami was quite different from A. zinniae. A. car- thami
could infect zinnia at every development stage. Once germi-
nation occurred, appressoria was formed and penetration was
ini- tiated within 48hrs after inoculation. Invaded
mesophyll cell were disintegrated within 96hrs after
inoculation. In vitro, di- fenoconazole , flusilazole ,
hexaconazole and pyrifenox inhibited significantly the growth
of A. carthami. Two isolates of antago- nistic Bacillius spp.
were able to inhibit the growth and caused germ tube swollen,
malformed of A. carthami. Spraying Bacillus spp. was
singificently effective to control zinnia leaf spot cau- sed by
A. carthami. The effectiveness of Bacillus spp. to control A.
carthami was even significently better than mancozeb and hexa-
conazole. Pyrifenox were the effective fungicide to control
zi- nnia leaf spot.
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