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研究生:楊明聖
研究生(外文):Ming-Sheng Yang
論文名稱:照射技術應用於香菇及金針菜
論文名稱(外文):Effects of gamma irradiation on the quality of shiitake ( Lentinula edodes Sing) and day lily (Hemerocallis fulva L.)
指導教授:洪登村洪登村引用關係
指導教授(外文):Deng-Tsen Horng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1995
畢業學年度:83
語文別:中文
論文頁數:124
中文關鍵詞:香菇金針菜加馬射線揮發性成分
外文關鍵詞:shiitakedaylilygamma irradiatedvolatile components
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經不同劑量之加馬射線照射新鮮香菇後 ,發現僅0.5kGy 之劑量即可減少
貯藏期間黴菌的蔓延及菇體之褐變 ,1kGy 以上的劑量即可完全抑制開傘
的發生。利用掃瞄式電子顯微鏡之觀察得知 ,1kGy 以上的劑量照射,擔
孢子即明顯受損 ,可能因此影響孢子之成熟而抑制開傘,而2kGy 的照射
,對菌絲並無明顯的傷害 ,顯示菇體可耐2kGy 之照射,而無品質不良之
明顯影響。利用GC-MS 分析香菇之揮發性成分,發現鮮菇之主要風味成分
為八碳化合物 ,鮮菇經2kGy 之照射後,其揮發性成分大量增加,而以酯
類、乙醇及八碳化合物增加最多。若將照射後之鮮菇加以乾燥,其香氣成
分與鮮菇明顯不同,影響風味之主要成分為含硫化合物。將1及2kGy 兩種
處理之香菇進行比較,發現乾燥後1kGy 較2kGy 處理者具有較多含硫化合
物(如 dimethyl disulfide , dimethyl trisulfide,
1,2,4-trithiolane等),因此1kGy 之處理其特異性風味成分較豐富。
2.0與5.0kGy 兩種劑量處理之新鮮金針花苞,花蕾之開苞完全受到抑制,
但花托基部裂開,花萼局部呈現褐化,尤其是5.0kGy之照射處理,更有落
蕾的現象發生。 1.0kGy 照射之花苞,外觀無明顯變化,但多數花苞僅能
半開。0.5kGy 之劑量處理 ,外觀正常且能正常開花,但花色有變淡現象
。經照射後之金針花梗,吸收水分能力降低,花梗壽命減短,且劑量愈高
愈明顯。照射對金針花之傷害,可由電子顯微鏡之觀察得知,其傷害為局
部性的造成細胞破裂。花瓣細胞在1.0kGy以上的劑量即有明顯之傷害,花
萼與花托細胞在2.0kGy以上的劑量才出現明顯之傷害。中劑量的加馬射線
可抑制金針花開苞,但亦造成細胞嚴重傷害。如何控制適當劑量,以達抑
制開苞又不傷害花蕾品質,尚需進一步探討。乾燥後的金針花苞,以GC-
MS 分析其香味成分,經鑑定後找出14種揮發性成分。至於乾燥之金針花
,經過加馬射線照射後,其揮發性成分並無顯著之變化。此技術除了可以
防黴除蟲外,還可免除亞硫酸鹽之使用,不但安全且可保持原有之風味與
品質,值得進一步推廣。
Fresh shiitake (Lentinula edodes Sing) was irradiated with
doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0kGy using 60Co. Effects of gamma
irradiation on the appearance and the flavor compounds of
shiitake before and after drying were studied.Irradiation with
a dose of 0.5kGy reduced mold growth and browning in the fresh
shiitake during postharvest storage.The growth of fresh
shiitake was absolutely inhibited by doses of 1 or more kGy.
The appearance quality of fresh shiitake was not affected With
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 2kGy irradiation.
the volatile components, especially as esters, alcohol and
eight- carbon compounds were increased in the fresh shiitake.
After being dried the shiitake with 1kGy irradiation contained
higher. However, 0.5kGy irradiation was recommended to use in
fresh shiitake for inhibiting mold growth, browning and cap-
openning and keeping a good appearance and flavor quality
during post- harvesting storage. Fresh day lily (Hemerocallis
fulva L.) flowers were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0,
5.0kGy using 60Co. Effects of gamma irradiated on the
appearance and flavor quality were studied with scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) and gas- chromatography The flower
blooming was inhibited by 2.0 or more kGy irradiation. However,
the browning and the tissue breaking were found in the flowers
irradiated with 2.0 and 5.0kGy the dropping of flowers occurred
after 5.0kGy and irradiation. With 1.0kGy irradiation The
volatile components of dried lily flowers were ethyl formate,
ethyl acetate, 3-methyl butanol, ethanol, isoamyl alcohol,
methyl pyrazine, 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine,furfural , acetic acid,
terpinolene, furfuryl formate ,furfuryl acetate, benzene
acetaldehy The irradiation was recommended to use to inhibit
mold and insects in dried day lily flowers during storage.
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