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研究生:龐玉珍
論文名稱:影響虱目魚游離組胺酸及其他含氮抽出物含量因素之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Factors Influencing the Contents of Free Histidine and Other Extractive Nitrogenous Components in Milkfish
指導教授:蕭泉源蕭泉源引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1995
畢業學年度:83
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:虱目魚游離組胺酸
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  • 被引用被引用:37
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  虱目魚肌肉之游離胺基酸中以組胺酸和牛磺酸為主,普通肉之組胺酸含量顯著高於血合肉,但牛磺酸則較血合肉,但牛磺酸則較血合肉低。IMP為肌肉中主要的核?酸,普通肉含量約為血合肉的兩倍。內臟游離胺基酸及核?酸,普通肉含量約為血合肉的兩倍。內臟游離胺基酸及核?酸化合物組成異於肌肉,其游離胺基酸以牛磺酸含最多,而組胺酸則顯著低於肌肉。內臟IMP含量甚少,遠低於肌肉,但hypoxanthine及xanthine含量則較肌肉高。
  野生虱目魚之組胺酸含量較養殖魚高,可能與野生魚因常急速游泳需組胺酸作為pH緩衝劑有關,而棲息環境鹽度較高之虱目魚,則含有較多之牛磺酸與甘胺酸,似與滲透壓調節有關。在核?酸化合物組成與含量方面,淡水、鹹水養殖魚與野生魚差異不大。
  淺坪式鹹水魚塭虱目魚在成長過程中,牛磺酸逐漸減少,但組胺酸則呈先減後增之現象,深水式淡水魚塭成長之虱目魚,組胺酸含量隨養殖時間的增長而增加,但牛磺酸則反向遞減。
  游離胺基酸總量與魚體大小無良好相關性,組胺酸含量則與魚體體重呈顯著的正相關,但牛磺酸卻呈負相關,甘胺酸雖與魚體大小無相關性,惟其與牛磺酸之合計量會隨組胺酸的增加而遞減,三種胺基酸的虱目魚肌肉中似具有互補性。虱目魚肌肉中IMP及核?酸化合物總量與魚體大小皆無顯著之相關性。
  游離胺基酸總量在虱目魚絕食期間呈現遞減現象,其減少量主要來自組胺酸之減少,其他胺基酸含量變化較小,牛磺酸在絕食期是幾無變化。絕食40天之虱目魚組胺酸量較絕食前減少約46%,推測游離組胺酸在虱目魚絕食期間,可能供為能量來原之一。
  虱目魚即殺後於室溫下貯存約1.5小時後呈僵直狀態而至解硬則需6.5個小時。pH、肝醣及ATP在其死後30分鐘皆有急遽下降蔌分解之現象,爾後至僵直再至解硬期間,三者含量變化不大。虱目魚死後甚至腐敗階段,pH維持在5.5∼5.9之間,顯示組胺酸在肌肉中確具很強之pH緩衝功能。
  Histidine and taurine were the predominant compounds of free amino acids (FAA) in milkfish white muscle. The histidine content was significantly higher than that in dark muscle, howerver, the latter contained more taurine than the former. IMP was the most prominent nucleotide compound in muscles, and the level in white muscle was about two times higher than that of dark muscle. The profiles of FAA and nucleotide compounds in viscera were differentfrom those in muscles. Viscera were rich in taurine, but the histidine content was much lower than that found in both muscles. The IMP level in viscera was much less than in muscles, however, viscera contained more hypoxanthine and xanthine.
  The histidine content in the wild milkfish was higher than those in the cultured fish. Histidine may function as a biochemical buffer when the wild fish move vigorously resulting in accumulation of acidic end products during periods of movement for feeding or escaping activites. Salt-water fish contained more both taurine and glycine indieating that both FAA might have a role in osmoregulation. There was no significant difference in the levels of nucleotide compounds in the fresh-water, salt-water and wild fish.
  The level of taurine was found gradually decreased with the time of fish growth in both deep-water and shallow-water ponds. In contrast, the content of histidine increased gradually as fish grow bigger.
  There was no significant correlation betweeen the total FAA content and fish size.It was fount that histidine had a positive correlation and taurine with a negative correlation with fish size, but glycine did not correlate well with fish size. The good correlation of histidine level and the total conteent of taurine and glycine indicated that these three FAA had the compensation effect for the physiological role. No significant correlation was found between fish size and the content of IMP and the total nucleotide compounds.
  The total amount of FAA in milkfish was decreased during starvation. The reduction of the total FAA was found directly associated with the decrease in histidine. After 40 days of starvation, histidine content in starved fish was decreased by 46% as compared to that of the pre-starved fish. Histidine may serve as an energy source for fish during the term of starvation.
  The spiked milkfish became full rigor after 1.5 hr, and began to relax after 6.5 hr storage at 30℃ The pH, glycogen and ATP concentrations were found decreased rapidly in the first 30 min of storage, and remained unchanged the during rigor mortis stage. The pH of milkfish after death ranged from 5.5 to 5.9 showed that histidine in the muscle possessed a strong buffer capacity.
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