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研究生:陳忠進
研究生(外文):CHEN, JON-JIN
論文名稱:醇-鹼溶液系統對由菜籽在庫尼塔中進行萃油及硫代葡甘移除之研究
論文名稱(外文):Rapeseed(Brassic napus)Oil Extraction and Glucosinolates Removal Using Alkaline/Alkanol/Water/Hexane System on A Kuhni Column
指導教授:陳齊聖‧曾耀銘
指導教授(外文):CHEE-SHAN CHEN‧YEW-MING TZENG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:食品工程研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1995
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:油菜籽萃油去毒庫尼塔
外文關鍵詞:rapeseedoil extractiondetoxificationkuhni column
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油菜籽中所含有約45%的油及35%高品質蛋白質可利用,惟在萃油後粕內之
蛋白質的應用,受限於硫代葡糖甘易受到芥子酵素水解而產生有毒的裂解
產物 ,因而影響到油菜籽粕之蛋白質的有效利用。一、在不同醇鹼溶劑
糸統中其去毒效果如下:甲醇及氨氣>甲醇及氫氧化鈉>乙醇及氨氣>乙醇
及氫氧化鈉 ,且萃毒率有隨鹼濃度之增加而提高之趨勢。二、以不同比
例調配而成之正己烷與甲醇鹼溶劑糸統中,其去毒率、萃油率效果比較如
下:60:40>50:50> 70:30>80:20>90:10。三、在以不同的萃取型式當中
,其效率比較如下:乾粕入料方式>漿體入料方式>批式處理。厙尼萃取塔為
一容量7.5公升、塔高 175公分、內徑6公分,內塔內 51片透空面積為
30﹪之穿孔平板(可增加滯留時間),和50個4公分內徑渦輪葉片(可控
制質量傳送速度)等所組成之萃取裝置。由於溫度會影響到萃取效率,所
以在萃取塔中以最適溫度為30℃之下操作:一、95%甲醇混合0.08%氫氧化
鈉之醇鹼溶劑,其去毒率約為 83% ;二、乙醇混合0.08%氫氧化鈉之醇
鹼溶劑中,去毒率為73%;三、在正已烷-95%甲醇混合0.08%氫氧化鈉之溶
劑糸統中,(1)以乾粕形式萃取,其去毒率為85%,萃油率為76%;(2)
以漿體形式萃取,其去毒率為85%, 萃油率為46%。在萃取操作過程中粗
蛋白之損失小於6%,而使用後溶劑經溶劑回收器之回收,其純度經氣相層
析法分析可達99%。經由正已烷與甲醇鹼溶劑糸統所萃取後的籽粕,不僅是
極具潛力的飼料用蛋白質,將來亦可能成為人類所食用蛋白質物質之先趨
性開發產物,且同時有萃油功能可節省經濟成本與時間,是一值得繼續研
究開發成商業生產的操作程序。
Rapeseed contains 45% edible oil and 35% high quality Protein
However,the utilization of the protein in the defatted rapeseed
meal was limited by the presence of toxic compound (i.e.
glucosinolates). This research studied the solvent system that
can effectively remove the toxins in the rapeseed meal, and
applied it on a pilot scale Kuhni extraction column. Various
operational conditions were studied and compared, such as,
batch operation, slurry feed countercurrent extraction and dry
feed countercurrent extraction, were also studied. Other
operational mode in the extraction of rapeseed oil and
detoxification were also carried out, such as simultaneous oil
extraction and detoxification, using CH3OH/H2O/NaOH-Hexane
solvent system. Batch effects of temperature, and solvent
composition on oil extraction and glucosinolates (toxin)
removal, over temperature range of 15℃ to 36℃, were studied.
Hexane to methanol ratio of 3:2(v/v) and water concentration of
5% (v/v) (final NaOH concentration was 0.08% W/V)was used. Time
courses of extraction at different temperatures were taken. It
was found that the effect of detoxification and oil extraction
increased with increasing temperature. However, above 30℃,
the improvement was less significant than that below 30℃. Oil
recovery was 16% at 15℃ (solid:liquid=1:4)which increased to
82% at 36℃. Residual glucosinolates(toxin)content in the
rapeseed meal (after 16 min of batch extraction) was 1.4mg/g at
15℃ and 0.9mg/g at 36℃. This research demonstrated that
simutaneous oil extraction and detoxification under controlled
temperature is of important potential application in the better
utilization of rapeseeds as a source of oil and protein for
human and animal.
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