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研究生:陳亮谷
研究生(外文):Chen, Liang-Guu
論文名稱:台灣中部高山土壤中施肥對養分流失之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Fertilization on Nutrient Losses in Alpine Soils from Central Taiwan
指導教授:楊秋忠楊秋忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiu-Chung Young
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土壤學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:4
中文關鍵詞:高冷地蔬菜田坡地果園肥料流失水污染淋洗泥炭
外文關鍵詞:vegetable field in mountainorchard field in slopelandfertilizer losswater pollutionleachingpeat
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
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摘要
台灣中部梨山武陵地區多年種植果樹與高冷蔬菜﹐施用大量有機與化學肥
料後﹐所潛藏 著土壤及肥料流失與水質污染的問題﹐以及土壤肥料養
分截留潛力與肥料流失及水質污 染間之關係﹐有待進一步探討。本研
究目的在探討高冷蔬菜田與坡地果園的土壤肥料陽 離子潛力指數﹐並
研究山坡地土壤受肥料影響後﹐養分截留潛力﹐以提供改善施肥對策

試驗以高冷地蔬菜田(武陵農場)﹑坡地果園(梨山)﹑平地蔬菜田(二林系
﹐彰化溪湖)與原始森林(梨山)四種不同土壤﹐分析結果顯示﹐高冷蔬菜
田土壤之有效性陽離子潛力指數達 271 %﹐坡地果園土壤為45 %﹐平
地蔬菜田土壤為87 %﹐原始森林土壤為30 %。在施用 肥料對土壤養
分截留潛力與肥料淋洗試驗﹐將四種土壤(含石礫)﹐以水土比1:1靜置12
小 時後排出淋洗液為第一次淋洗﹐並在第3﹑10﹑24﹑45及73天相同步
驟淋洗﹐分別是第二 ﹑三﹑四﹑五及六次淋洗。氮肥施用則在每次淋
洗前於去離子水中添加176 mg N L-1的尿 素或20 mg N L-1的硝酸銨。
結果顯示﹐高冷地蔬菜田土壤含較多量的可溶性氮肥。氮肥 施用方面
則約施用600~700mg N L-1﹐經孵育24~45天﹐淋洗四~五次後﹐農地耕作
的土壤 氮肥截留與萃取達平衡狀態﹐初期氮肥施用原始森林土壤能截
留較多﹐高冷地蔬菜田土 壤截留較少﹐經施用六次氮肥後﹐原始森林
土壤被萃取出較多的氮肥﹐高冷地蔬菜田土 壤被萃取出較少。
在三種不同溫度(15﹑25﹑35℃)處理高冷地蔬菜田土壤之淋洗試驗﹐試驗
方法同前述﹐並 以平地蔬菜田土壤為對照。結果顯示﹐溫度愈低﹐養分
洗失百分率愈低﹐對照土壤亦是 如此。
在高冷地蔬菜田土壤施用不同有機質之養分洗失試驗﹐以管柱淋洗﹐將2
mm過篩之高冷 地蔬菜田土壤﹐施用1 % (w/w)的有機質﹐分別為泥炭
﹑蔗渣堆肥與雞糞堆肥﹐以水土比 2:1 靜置12小時後排出淋洗液為第
一次淋洗﹐並在第7﹑21﹑42﹑70及105天相同步驟淋 洗﹐分別是第二
﹑三﹑四﹑五及六次淋洗。化學肥料施用則在每次淋洗前於去離子水中
添加24 mg N L-1的尿素。結果顯示﹐尿素為化學肥料移動性快﹐施用六
次孵育105天後﹐ 對土壤菌數增加並不顯著。泥炭處理含極低的可溶性
鹽類﹐分解速率穩定﹐能吸附部分 NO3-減少洗失﹐淋洗孵育後仍可提
供較多的氮與磷肥﹐且土壤中細菌與放線菌菌數差異 顯著。蔗渣堆肥
含較高的可溶性氮﹑鉀﹑鈣﹑鎂與硫﹐雞糞堆肥普遍含較高的養分﹐銅
與鋅含量亦相當高﹐淋洗孵育後可提供較多的養分﹐大量施用可能造成銅
與鋅之累積。 綜合上述﹐高冷地蔬菜田土壤之有效性陽離子潛力指數
甚高﹐含較高之可溶性氮肥﹐保 肥能力較低﹐若經降雨或灌溉﹐極易
造成肥料流失及水質污染。若能應用適當的有機質 材﹐如﹕泥炭可減
低可溶性氮肥的施用﹐不僅可減少施肥成本﹐增進土壤肥力﹐亦能減
低氮肥的流失與水質污染﹐保護土壤與水資源﹐維持農業的永續發展。
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables were planted years at the area of Li-shang
and Wu-ling in central Taiwan. The hidden danger of
soil loss, fertilizer loss, water pollution and the
connection of fertilizer loss and water pollution with soil
fertilizer potential of nutrient retained became critical after
great amounts of fertilizers were applied. The first
objective of this study is to investigate the soil fertilizer
potential index of nutrient retained of the soils from
vegetable field in mountain and orchard in slopeland.
Second, this study provide strategies for amelioration by
assessing the potential of nutrient retained of soils
applied with fertilizers. The
potential index of available nutrient of four chosen soils -
vegetable field soil in mountain (Wu-ling farm), orchard field
soil in slopeland (Li-shang), vegetable field soil in
lowland (Erh-ling series, Chang-hua Shi-hu) and forest soil (Li-
shang) are 271, 45, 87 and 30%. In the first experiment,
the soils mentioned above ( including gravel) were
soaked in the distilled water added with 176 mg N L-1 of
urea or 120 mg N L-1 of NH4NO3 by the ratio of 1:1 for 12 hr
then leached out as the initiative leaching. Same steps
were held in the 3rd, 10th, 24th, 45th and 73rd day as the
2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th leaching. The results showed that
vegetable field soil in mountain contained great amount
of soluble N. The retained N and extracted N of
cultivated soil reached to an equilibrium after four or five
times of leaching within the application range of 600~700
mg N L-1 and the retained N in soil of forest is
higher than that of vegetable field in mountain at the early
applicationas well as extracted N from forest soil exceeded that
from vegetable field soil in mountain after excess
applications.
The experiment was also treated under 3 different levels of
temperature. The result showed that the percentage of
nutrient loss decreased as the temperatures dropped. In
the 3rd experiment, the 2 mm sieved soil from vegetable field in
mountain was ready for the column leaching. Soils added
with different fertilizers - urea (24 mg N L-1),
peat, Bagasse manure and poultry manure were soaked in distilled
water by water: soil = 2:1 for 12 hr﹐then leached out as the
initiative leaching. Same steps were held in the 7th,
21st, 42nd, 70th and 105th day as the 2nd, 3rd, 4th,
5th and 6th leaching. Although urea mobilizes quickly yet no
change of microorganism population was found
during six times of incubation in 105 days. Though
peat contains very low soluble salts, stable decomposing rate
and the ability to absorb NO3- made it a better
fertilizer even when it was leached. Besides, the
populations of bacteria and actinomycetes was significant
different after leaching and incubation. Soluble N, K,
Ca, Mg and S in Bagasse manure were high. Much
amount of nutrient was left because high levels of nutrient
were contained in poultry manure including Cu and Zn. After
times of application would lead to the accumulation of
Cu and Zn. The
results of these experiments came to the conclusion that
vegetable field soil in mountain exhibited a high
potential index of nutrient and a great amount of soluble N. But
weak fertilizer holding capacity. Fertilizer loss and water
pollution will be induced easily when if precipitate or
irrigate. Applying materials of organic substances, such as
peat, would create several advantaged , like decrease the amount
of application of soluble N, minimize the cost, decrease
the loss of N , enrich the fertility of soil and most
important of all it will, keep the agriculture development
sustainable.
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