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研究生:吳振名
研究生(外文):Wu, Jang-Ming
論文名稱:正斷層復活與構造反轉之砂箱模型實驗
論文名稱(外文):Sandbox Experiments of Reactivated and Inverted Normal Faults
指導教授:洪日豪洪日豪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung,Jih-Hao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:應用地質研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1996
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:復活反轉
外文關鍵詞:reactivationinversion
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在地質構造的研究中,物理模型的模擬實驗對地質構造的演化及成因有
相當大的助益。而正斷層的復活與構造反轉的現象常見於一般沈積盆地發
展為造山帶的過程。在台灣西南部嘉南地區麓山帶的逆衝斷層,有些可能
是沿著早期正斷層重新活動而造成構造反轉的現象。因此本研究藉由砂箱
模型的實驗對正斷層的復活與構造反轉提供更進一步的認識。 砂箱模
型的邊界條件包括平面(前向斷坡)及三維(橫向斷坡連接兩個前向斷坡
)應變。斷坡的型態則由60度傾角的圓鍬狀滑離斷層與平面滑離斷層所構
成。在平面應變的模型研究中,圓鍬狀滑離斷層於張裂過程中,在模型中
心形成左右兩側正斷層對稱的地塹構造,岩層也因旋轉調適應變而形成反
向背斜。平面滑離斷層由次生斷層形成的地塹較不對稱,主要由反向次生
正斷層來調適整體的應變。在收縮環境下,圓鍬狀滑離斷層次生的同向正
斷層與反向正斷層皆有構造反轉的現象;平面滑離斷層僅有反向次生正斷
層才會呈現構造反轉的現象。反衝斷層在圓鍬狀及平面滑離斷層的收縮環
境中,生成於構造反轉現象的中、晚期。在三維應變的實驗,斷坡的型態
對上盤的地質構造有明顯的影響。由於橫向斷坡的位態與最大主應力夾角
為45度,使得位於斷坡上盤的構造發育出現了走向滑移的分量。由不同斷
坡所組成的斷層,其斷層線在地表所表現的型態即與原始斷坡型態相似。
所以,構造反轉的逆斷層在斷層線的表現上,應會受到原始斷坡的型態所
控制。這些由砂箱模型所得到的結果,將有助於正斷層的復活與構造反轉
的暸解及地下構造的解釋。
In the study of geological structures physical sandbox models
had shown to be an useful fool to investigate the geometric and
kinematic evolution of structures. Reactivation along pre-
existing normal faults and inverted structures are frequently
observed during the evolution of a sedimentary basin from early
extension to later contraction during orogeny. Several major
thrust faults such as the Chukou and Lunho faults in the
foothillsbelt of Chianan area of southwestern Taiwan are shown
to be inverted from normal faults. In this study, the
reactivation and inversion of normalfaults are investigated via
both plane strain and three dimensional sandboxmodel
experiments. Boundary conditions of representative scaled
analogue models include rigid footwall geometries comprising
plane strain ( frontal ramp ) and three dimensional strain ( two
frontal ramps connected by a transverse ramp ). The ramp is
composed of listric and planar detachment faults that have cut-
off angle of 60 to the horizontal. In the plane strain listric
detachment models, symmetric graben structures form in the
center of the model during the extensional process, and roll-
over anticline appear adjacent to the main fault. The graben
formed in the planar detachment model is asymmetric, and the
structure is dominated by antithetic faults. During inversion
stage,back thrusts start to develop after moderate amount of
contraction in bothplane strain models. In the three dimensional
experiments, the configuration of the ramp has prominent effects
on the geological structures in the hanging-wall. The angle
between the strike of the transverse ramp and the transport
direction is 45, and this results in strike-slip motion along
the transverse ramp in the hanging-wall. Map-view fault trace
conforms to thegeometry of the footwall ramp. Reactivation and
inversion of the normal faults can be better understood through
sandbox experiments, and resultsof this study is applied to the
inverted normal faults in the foothills belt of southwestern
Taiwan.
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