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研究生:張俊明
研究生(外文):Chang, Jian Ming
論文名稱:台北市公車業規模經濟與生產力之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Scale Economies and Productivity of Bus Industry in Taipei
指導教授:陳敦基陳敦基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Dun-Ji,
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1996
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:台北市公車規模經濟生產力最小有效規模成本函數
外文關鍵詞:TaipeiBusScale EconomiesProductivityMESCost Function
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
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綜觀過去對於台北市公車產業之研究,多以台北市公車處一家業者為
研究對象。對於公車產業整體之經濟特性無法提供完整之訊息。針對此一
問題,本研究乃將台北市十家聯營公車業者納入研究範圍,以較全面性之
觀點探討台北市公車產業之成本函數、生產要素之彈性與近幾年生產力變
化情形與原因;此外,台北市十家公車業者之規模大小是否適當亦為一重
要之課題,本研究透過最小有效規模(MES)之研究,提出業者增減經營
規模之建議。本文主要研究結果與發現分述如下:1.台北市公車產業成本
函數之校估: 本研究分別以延人公里、載客數、班次數為產出單位估
計成本函數之基本模式,並且在基本模式中加入班次平均運程、每班次載
客數、每公里載客數等產出特性估計加入產出特性變數之模式。研究結果
顯示,公車處與其它之民營業者之經營型態有明顯之差異,故本研究乃將
公車處獨立出來,另行建立民營業者之年成本函數與公車處之月成本函數
。2.生產力變化之研究: 台北市公車產業近年來生產力呈下降之趨勢
,主要原因為生產技術之衰退,規模經濟效果則不明顯。在載客數與班次
數之生產力方面,於民國83年後則有所提昇。公車處之規模經濟效果為負
,指南為正,其他業者則不明顯。由此可知,公車處規模過大,指南過小
,其他業者則約略處於固定規模報酬階段。3.最小有效規模(MES)之研
究: 綜合要素生產力相對績效法、相對平均成本法與成本函數推估法
,推求MES之可能區間;在員工數方面為321人至726人之間,在車輛數方
面則為146輛與328輛之間。另外,研究結果顯示公車處此一極端值會對
MES之研究產生影響。由成本彈性之曲線配適數學式求得之MES包含公車處
為員工數549人、車輛數224輛;不包含公車處為員工數473人、車輛數206
輛。
Abstract:

The previous studies on bus industries in Taipei Metropolitan
are focus on Taipei Bus Administration . This kind of study
can''t reveal the economiccharacteristics of the bus industry as
a whole . In this study , we will takethe ten bus companies
which joint venture in Taipei Metropolitan as the subjectof the
study . Treating the ten bus companies as a whole , we will
develop thecost function of the industries , the elasticity of
the associated , productionparameters , and the change in
productivity and it reasons in the recent years. In addition ,
the economic scale of the ten bus companies is an important
subject to be studies . In this study , we adopted the minimum
efficient scale ( MES ) to evaluate the proper scale of ten bus
companies . The major finding of this study are as follows :
1. The estimated cost function of the bus industries in Taipei
City : In this study , vehicle-kilometer , passenger-
kilometer , and vehicle-frequency is used as the basic output
unit to estimate basic model for the costfunction . In addition
, average kilometer per frequency , average passenger per
vehicle , average passenger per kilometer are three output
characteristicsincorporated into the basic model to develop a
advanced cost function model to reveal the output
characteristics . The results of this study indicate that
thereis signification difference in the operation pattern
between Taipei Bus Administration and nine private bus companies
. Therefore , in this study , we develop annual cost function
for the nine bus companies , and monthly cost function for
Taipei Bus Administration.

2. The change in productivity:

The productivity of the Taipei City bus industry is decreasing
in the recent year . The major reasons is the decline in the
production technology .The effect of Scale of economic made
slight influence to productivity. There was increase in
productivity of passenger and operating frequency since 1984 .
The effect of Scale of economic made productivity decline for
Taipei Bus Administration and rise for Chi-Nan bus company , for
the other companies , it made slight influence .This
information indicates that Taipei Bus Administration is over-
scale , Chi-Nan Bus Company is under-scale and others are in
proper scale. 3. The study of MES: In
sum factor performance indexes method , average cost method ,
and cost function method ,they are applied to estimate the
probable range of MES . The range of Employee is between 321 and
726 persons . The range of fleet size is between 146 and 328
vehicles . In addition , the result shows that the extreme value
of Taipei Bus Administration plays an important factor on the
MES study . The MES estimated by the curve-fitting of cost
elasticity is 549 persons and 224 vehicles ( include Taipei Bus
Administration ) , 473 persons and 206 vehicles ( not include
Taipei Bus Administration ) .
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