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研究生:丘明中
研究生(外文):Chiou, Ming-Jong
論文名稱:大型垃圾焚化廠飛灰與其重金屬之質能平衡分析
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Mass Balance Analysis of Fly Ash and Its Heavy Metals of MSW Incinerator
指導教授:高思懷高思懷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sue-Huai Gau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:水資源及環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1996
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:飛灰重金屬質能平衡
外文關鍵詞:fly ashheavy metalsmass balance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
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垃圾經高溫焚化後,其經污染防制設備所收集之飛灰,因含有重金屬而成
為眾人關心的課題。飛灰中重金屬含量的多寡與垃圾中重金屬成分、爐內
操作狀況及爐後空氣污染防制設備之集塵特性有很大的關係,因此,重金
屬自鍋爐區進入空氣污染防制設備後之行為,包含焚化產生之煙塵量,飛
灰在各空氣污染防制設備之排出量,重金屬之分佈狀況及特性以及各項污
染物質去除效率等均需加以研究,期能減少因焚化設施使用不當而造成之
負面影響,並建立本土化之焚化廠操作營運基本資料? 了解飛灰中重金
屬之分佈狀況及特性,特以某大型焚化廠試燒時之連續監測資料,並採集
各集塵點之飛灰作重金屬行為之分析,同時,為了彌補現場資料不足之缺
點,特以該廠質能平衡資料加以補充,並廣採對照資料以資對比′膍s結
果發現,在大型焚化廠操作條件及污染物生成部分,逆摺式爐床其煙
塵生成量介於2000ppm∼5000ppm之間,而正常操作時煙塵生成量則介
於3000ppm∼4000ppm之間,總計焚化一噸垃圾約可產生37公斤之飛灰及反
應生成物,而煙塵量隨投入垃圾量之增加而增加,推究其原因可能為投入
較多之垃圾量,促使垃圾移動速度加快,垃及擾動程度增加所致,另在低
負荷時產生之煙塵量明顯小於正常負荷時產生之煙塵量,但高負荷時產生
之煙塵量似與低負荷及正常負荷之操作無一定之關係。在飛灰中重金屬分
佈狀況及特性部分,於垃圾焚化過程中,焚化一噸垃圾有173.9g∼180.9g
之Pb,4.93g∼5.99g之Cd,467.1g∼508.9g之Zn及 4.9g∼5.02g之Cr可
被空氣污染防制系統截留、收集,於所截留、收集之重金屬中,Pb有21%
∼22%留存於飛灰,有78%∼79%留存於反應生成物中,Cd有19%∼22.9%留
存於飛灰中,有77.1%∼81%留存於反應生成物中,Zn有30.4%∼33.4%留存
於飛灰中,有66.6%∼69.6%留存於反應生成物中,Cr有74.4%∼75.5%留存
於飛灰中,有24.5%∼25.6%留存於反塵生成物中,另依TCLP溶出測試結果
顯示。a(OH)_2對Cd、Zn、Cr之溶出有極強之抑制作用,但對於Pb之作用
卻完全相反而有促進溶出之效果。
  For the municipal solid waste incineration, the fly ash
collected by the flue gas treatment system has been concerned
by the public due to the heavy metals in the fly
ash and the reaction product.
The heavy metal contents and amounts found in the fly ash have
great interrelation with it''s contents of the
solid waste, the operation conditions of
the incinarator, and the characteristics of the flue gas
treatment system. In order to reduce the negative impact to the
environment due to the abnormal operation of the
incinerator and to built up the local basic data, it is
necessary to study the behaviors of the
heavy metal in the flue gas after entering the flue gas
treatment system, which includes the amount of fly ash
in the flue gas leaving the waste heat recovery boiler,
the amount of fly ash collected by each individual equipment of
flue gas treatment system, the distribution and
characteristics of heavy metal, and the removal
efficiency of various pollutants, etc.
  To understand the heavy metal distribution and
characteristics in the fly ash, the continuous measurement
records during trial run of a large municipal solid
waste (MSW) incinerator was studied, and the fly ash heavy metal
analysis was performed respectively for the fly ash
collected by each step of the flue gas
treatment system. in addition, the mass balance
calculation was also performed support in order to
the insufficiency of and to compare with the continuous
measurement records.   For the operation conditions
and pollutants formation of the large capacity
incinerator, study results indicate that for the reverse-acting
stoker, the dust concentration in the flue gas is
2000∼5000ppm, and 3000∼4000 ppm in
normal operation. Overall 37 kg of fly ash and flue gas
reaction product is produced after incineration of 1 ton
municipal solid waste. The dust concentration increases
when the refuse input rate increases. It is supposed
to result from the more turbulence of refuse on the mechanical
grate due to that more input of refuse into the stoker
and therefore higher moving speed of refuse on the
grate. At low load incinerator operation, the dust
concentration in the flue gas is much lower than at normal load
operation. But at overload incineration operation, the
dust concentration in the flue gas seems to have no
significant relation with the operation load. For the
distribution and characteristics of heavy metal in fly
ash, the study results indicate that after incineration,
each ton of municipal solid waste produces 173.9∼180.9g of
Pb, 4.93∼5.99g of Cd, 467.1∼508g of Zn, and 4.9∼5.02g of Cr,
which can be collected by the flue gas treatment system. For the
flue gas treatment system which includes cyclone,
dry Ca(OH)_2 powder injection and bag filter,
21∼22% Pb is collected with the fly ash, while 78∼79%Pb is
collected with the reaction product, 19∼22.9% Cd is collected
with the fly ash, whille 77.1∼81% Cd is Collected with
the reaction product, 30.4∼33.4% Zn is collected with
the fly ash, while 66.6∼69.6% Zn is collected with the reaction
product, and 74.4∼75.5% Cr is collected with fly ash, while
24.5∼25.6% is collected with the reaction
product. According to TCLP test result, Ca(OH)
_2 has strong effect on constraining the Cd, Zn and Cr from
leaching out. But for the Pb, the effect is on the contrary.
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