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研究生:林加樂
研究生(外文):Jiale Lin
論文名稱:游於哥德風,止乎心理派:伊德絲.華騰的鬼故事
論文名稱(外文):From the Gothic to the Psychic: The Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton
指導教授:林亞倫林亞倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Alan G. Lindsay
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:西洋語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1996
畢業學年度:84
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:文類鬼故事哥德式小說哥德風心理鬼故事
外文關鍵詞:Genreghostthe ghost storythe Gothic novelGothicthe
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伊德絲. 華騰的鬼故事, 反映了鬼故事文類從哥德式小說以降到心理鬼故
事的走向。她對鬼故事黃金時期 (即十九世紀下半葉至廿世紀初) 的前輩
作家有一定的認識、如雷. 法努、歐. 布萊恩、詹姆思、史蒂文生、克勞
佛等。她主張好的鬼故事能予人或有可能之感且發生得自然, 有「溫度計
般升降起伏的」心理效果, 而鬼魂出沒需靜謐與重複等。其鬼故事表現了
十八世紀末至十九世紀初哥德式小說夙有的幽閉建築、超自然、 驚懼或
恐怖的氛圍、 神祕詭譎、 孤立無援的女主角以及反派角色等要素。她的
鬼故事中雖有哥德風, 卻鮮少哥德式小說的中世紀場景,而是從現代出發
。她最具哥德風的鬼故事有<柯爾佛莊園>和<瓊斯先生>。心理鬼故事由亨
利. 詹姆思開其鋒, 隨後渥特. 德. 拉. 梅爾更優於此道。二者皆華騰所
景仰。她應用了心理鬼故事的特點: 結局在現實與超自然兩造解釋間遊
移--是鬼或人抑幻覺, 難分難解。這種虛實模稜的手法藉由不知情的敘事
者或闖入者、反諷的結尾與鬼魂出沒的精簡處理, 更添異彩。她典型的心
理鬼故事有<蠱惑>與<雙眼>。

Edith Wharton's ghost stories mirror a tendency of the ghost
story genre which has moved from the Gothic novel toward the
psychological ghost story. She had a certain knowledge of her
precursors during the golden age of the ghost story, such as Le
Fanu, O'Brien, James, Stevenson, and Crawford. She proposed
that a good ghost story is characterized by probability with
the air of naturalness, the "thermometrical quality" of the
effect, and silence and repetition for the appearance of the
ghost. Wharton's ghost stories show the traditional elements of
the gothic novel, which flourished between the late eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries. These elements are the
claustrophobic house, supernatural agency, the emotional
atmosphere of terror or horror, mystery, the isolated heroine,
and the villain. Her settings and characters are modern, but
rarely medieval, as in the Gothic novel. The most
representative of her Gothic ghost stories are "Kerfol" and
"Mr. Jones." The first writer who began writing psychological
ghost stories was Henry James, followed by Walter de la Mare.
Both of them were, in Wharton's eyes, excellent ghost-story
writers. She is original in her approach to the psychological
ghost story, in which the horror is left undefined and in which
there is an oscillation between a possible natural explanation
and a supernatural one. Her suggestive vagueness is enforced
by means of the innocent narrator or intruder, the ironic
ending or final revelation, and the economy of horror. Her two
typical psychological ghost stories are "Bewitched" and "The
Eyes."

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