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研究生:甘文田
研究生(外文):Kan Wen Tien
論文名稱:智利威權政體之政治轉型(1973~1990)
論文名稱(外文):Political Transition of Chilean Authoritarian Regime
指導教授:王先生
指導教授(外文):Mrs. Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:拉丁美洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1996
畢業學年度:84
語文別:中文
論文頁數:235
中文關鍵詞:威權政體民主轉型皮諾契特
外文關鍵詞:Authoritarian RegimeTransition of DemocracyPinochet
相關次數:
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  自一八三○年迄一九七三年近一百四十餘年中,智利已享有近百餘年
的民主政治,世人也普遍對智利民主成果予以高度的肯定與評價。除了一
九二四和一九三二年有短暫的民主波折外,大體而言,智利擁有高度發展
的民主政治、政黨政治,並定期辦理公開、自由和競爭性的選舉;人民的
公民權及基本人權也受到廣泛的尊重與保障。在以政變頻傳的拉丁美洲地
區,堪稱獨樹一幟。  一九七三年,阿葉德左派聯合政府因政、經危機
而爆發了軍事政變,智利最終仍陷入大多數拉丁美洲國家普遍所苦的「民
主與專權」之擺盪中(pendulum)。  政變後,頗多智利人士仍樂觀地
認為,智利軍方擁有鮮少干政、涉政的特點,且多年以來,民主運作的方
式已深植人心,智利遠比其他威權政體更有機會和條件早日回歸民主體制
。然而,軍政府不僅順利接手政權,且更進一步想達成政治永久制度化的
目標,因而建立了智利史上統治型態最獨裁、統治最久的威權政體。究竟
是何種因素讓軍政府獨裁統治十五年,而未進行民主轉型?而獨裁統治十
五年後,又是那些因素促使智利達成民主轉型呢?本文擬依相關的民主轉
型理論,自行建構出分析變項,並印證這些變項對本案例的影響性。
From 1830 to 1973, Chile enjoyed more than a century of de-
cracy,receiving high praise and widespread recognition
acrossworld. Except for brief setbacks in 1924 and 1932,
Chileessed well-developed democracy and party politics,held
open and free elections periodically, and guaranteed
citizenship and basic human rights to Chileans. In Latin
America, where mili- tary coups have been the norm,Chile''s
achievements can been seens all the more admirable. In 1973,
during the reign of the left-wing coalitionovernment of
Salvador Allende, a coup d''etat broke out due to political and
socioeconomic crises. As a result, Chile began toollow a
pendulum-swing of "democracy or dictatorship", a pheno- menon
prevalent in the Latin American region. However, despite the
coup,many Chileans remained optimisticbout their country''s
future. Because there were few incidentsthe past where Chilean
military power had intervened initics, and because Chileans
were used to the democratic way of life, Chileans continued to
believe that their country would soon return to democracy. But
contrary to what was hoped,hileans military forces not only
assumed power with littlefficulty, but also intened to
establish a permanent military- controlled government. As a
result, Chile was put underictatorial military rule for 15
years,which was the longestmost severe authoritarian rule in
Chile''s history. So what were the factors that enabled the
Chilean military toold on to power for 15 years? And what made
Chile eventuallyturn to democracy? These are the questions
this thesis proveso, based on relative theories of democratic
transitions. Theor has also construct analytical variables
accordingly tothe case.
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