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研究生:范秀娟
研究生(外文):Fan, Hsiu-chuan
論文名稱:桑頓•懷爾德《吾鎮》及其前導:跨文化特質的呈現
論文名稱(外文):Thornton Wilder's Our Town and Its Precursors: The Reflection of Cross-culture
指導教授:閻振瀛閻振瀛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joseph C. Y. Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:桑頓懷爾德懷爾德吾鎮梅蘭芳跨文化漫長的聖誕餐會
外文關鍵詞:Thornton WilderWilderOur TownMei Lan-fangCross-cultureThe Long Christmas Dinner
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論文題目:桑頓.懷爾德《吾鎮》及其前導:跨文化特質的呈現

校所組別:國立成功大學外國語文研究所

畢業時間及提要別:八十五學年度第一學期碩士學位論文提要

研究生:范秀娟 指導教授:閰振瀛
教授

論文提要

二十世紀初西歐充斥著象徵主義、表現主義等反寫實主義的文藝思潮,然
而美國劇壇仍是寫實劇的天下。美國戲劇作家桑頓.懷爾德 (Thornton
Wilder) (1897-1975) 認為寫實劇無法呈現普遍的真理,因此在《吾鎮
》(Our Town) (1938)中採用了空曠舞臺、虛擬動作以及安排舞臺監督一
角等戲劇技巧,來實踐其戲劇理念:回歸戲劇的假定性或劇場性、刺激觀
眾的想像力、以及呈現普遍的真理。空曠舞臺、虛擬動作等戲劇技巧創造
了靈活自由的舞臺時空,使觀眾得以發揮想像力,將有限的舞臺化為無限
的時空,表達人生中出生、結婚、死亡經驗的普遍性,把平時人們可能視
而不

、聽而不聞的事標誌出來。

懷爾德 的《吾鎮》獨樹一格實歸功於其吸取各文化傳統之精華。跨文化
是文學發展的必然趨勢,有助於創作及了解文學作品。早在一八二七年,
歌德在其語錄中就指出了「世界文學」時代的來臨,而懷爾德在〈歌德與
世界文學〉一文中,亦闡述世界文學的概念,強調中西文化交流的重要性
,暗示西方讀者不當自囿於本位文化的了解,而應該延伸知識的觸角到不
同的文化傳統。

中國傳統戲曲京劇與西方的古希臘戲劇及莎士比亞戲劇同為非寫實劇場;
京劇是西方戲劇的重要借鑒。一九三O年二月十六日,中國京劇演員梅蘭
芳及其劇團首次於美國紐約市四十九街戲院 (The 49th Street Theater)
演出京劇,隨後梅劇團在美巡迴演出歷半年之久。同年夏天懷爾德完成了
《漫長的聖誕餐會及其他獨幕劇集》,其中《漫長的聖誕餐會》(The
Long Christmas Dinner) 、《赴特雷頓和開木登愉快的旅行》(The
Happy Journey to Trenton and Camden)、《海耶瓦薩酋長號臥車》
(Pullman Car Hiawatha) 三齣獨幕劇的戲劇技巧和主題與《吾鎮》雷同
,運用了空

舞臺、虛擬動作、舞臺監督現身舞臺等舞臺設計及技巧,來表達人類經驗
的共通性。雖然懷爾德與中國戲劇之直接接觸僅限於一九三O年二月在紐
約看了梅蘭芳的表演,但此經驗對懷爾德影響極為深遠。梅蘭芳的京劇演
出為懷爾德提供了一個活生生的例證,幫助懷爾德正本溯源,回歸西方戲
劇的非寫實傳統。

本論文共分六章。第一章乃緒論。第二章從劇場的假定性、想像力以及戲
劇之功能三方面探討懷爾德的戲劇觀念。第三章討論《吾鎮》之前導。第
四章探討《吾鎮》的戲劇技巧及懷爾德戲劇理念之實踐。第五章比較京劇
與《吾鎮》彼此的異同及特色,並藉此說明京劇極可能觸發懷爾德之創作
靈感。第六章為結論。



Title of Thesis: Thornton Wilder's Our Town and Its Precursors:
The Reflection of Cross-cultureName of Institute: Graduate
Institute of Foreign Languages and LiteratureNational Cheng Kung
UniversityGraduate Date: January 1997 Degree
Conferred: Master of Arts Student: Hsiu-chuan Fan
Thesis Adviser: Prof. Joseph C. Y. YenAbstract Thornton
Wilder (1897-1975) exhibits his fight against Realism and
startles the world of the theater with his experiments in Our
Town (1938). In order to restore the fictionality of the
theater, to encourage imagination, and to present on the stage
the universal human experience, the life cycle of birth, love
and marriage, and death, he abandons the realistic staging
methods and experiments with many theatrical devices such as the
effective use of a bare stage, pantomime, and the presence of
the Stage Manager. Since the staging methods in Our Town bear
striking similarities to those of Peking theater, making
references to Peking theater will help us understand Our Town
better, and further, bring forth some new messages in relation
to the significance of cross-culture. Cross-culture is a
concept extended from Goethe's World Literature, and according
to Wilder, World Literature means "literature of all times and
languages, the merely good as well as the great, in so far as it
can be felt to illustrate the concept so dear to him of the
unity of all mankind." It conceptualizes the idea that mutual
understanding and mutual illumination of arts can be achieved
through having contact with foreign literature. Though Wilder's
only direct contact with Chinese theater is limited to his
seeing the great Peking theater actor Mei Lan-fang's performance
in New York in 1930, the fact that his one-act plays which
foreshadow Our Town in themes and techniques were written during
Mei Lan-fan's visit in America provides us with an evidence to
postulate the impact of Peking theater on Wilder. As a piece of
well-preserved ancient art, Peking theater provides Wilder with
a concrete and living example of the nonrealistic theaters in
the Western tradition. Mei Lan-fang's performance leads Wilder
to realize the nonrealistic roots in the Western culture. As
for the organization of the present thesis, the first chapter is
an introduction which primarily deals with the previous study
and the motivation. Chapter II is intended to present Wilder's
conviction of the theater while Chapter III is an attempt to
explore the germination of Our Town in terms of its nonrealistic
theatrical methods. In Chapter IV, I will make an effort to
illustrate Wilder's realization of his ideas of the theater in
Our Town. In Chapter V, I will make a comparison between
Wilder's style in Our Town and that of Peking theater. Finally,
in Chapter VI, I will offer a conclusion that Peking theater is
an antecedent used to clarify, justify and explain Wilder's
ideas on drama and the staging techniques in Our Town and its
precursors.

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