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研究生:張鐘尹
研究生(外文):Chang, Chung-yin
論文名稱:漢語對話中的疑問句
論文名稱(外文):A Discourse Analysis of Questions in Mandarin Conversation
指導教授:黃宣範黃宣範引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shuanfan Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:203
中文關鍵詞:漢語言談分析問句直述問句語法形式溝通功能
外文關鍵詞:Mandarindiscoursequestiondeclarative questionformfunction
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摘要

本研究旨在探討漢語對話中疑問句的形式與功能之間對應的關係,以期對
溝通功能如何激發語言形式的形成有進一步的瞭解。此研究包含了31個自
然對話語料,長約189分鐘。每個疑問句皆依其語法形式及溝通功能分類
。 就語法形式而言,疑問句
可分成句子和非句子兩大類,再歸成「疑問詞問句」、「選擇問句」、「
句尾語助詞問句」、「獨立語助詞問句」、「是非問句」、「附加問句」
及「直述問句」。由於「直述問句」和部分「非句子問句」不帶有任何的
疑問形式,因此聽話者如何判斷所聽到的話是問句是個值得探討的課題。
詞彙標記、訊息的狀態及言談結構之間的互動應是主要的影響因素。「直
述問句」和部分「非句子問句」帶有疑問指示詞。而不帶有疑問指示詞者
則可分為「純粹直述問句」與「要求修補問句」。由於疑問詞本身有多種
溝通功能,所以它們對於直述問句和非句子問句判斷不具有決定性的影響
。對話參與者所擁有的訊息狀態及言談順序才是決定性的因素。

就溝通功能而言,疑問句可分為外在訊息問句、言談問句、關係問句及表
意問句四大類。這些功能呈一線狀分佈。從說話者的肯定度來看,疑問句
有從說話者不確定性高的至不確定性低的;從訊息的角度來看,則有從說
話者在尋求訊息的至傳遞訊息的疑問句。同時,疑問句亦顯現出從尋求較
客觀、指示性的訊息,至傳遞較主觀、以說話者為出發點的態度和看法的
分佈。因此這說明即使在句構層次意義的主觀化或說話者介入程度的表達
,那種機制的運作亦明顯可見。

研究結果顯示,疑問句的語法形式與溝通功能雖是多對多的關係,其中卻
仍存有某種特定的對應關係。說話者傾向於使用疑問詞問句、是非問句及
句尾語助詞為「嗎」的問句來尋求外在訊息。而直述問句、附加問句與句
尾語助詞非「嗎」的問句則多用來尋求關於言談本身的訊息。關係問句多
以句尾語助詞問句和是非問句表達。此外,表意問句則多以疑問詞問句及
附加問句的形式呈現。可見語言的語法形式的確是由其溝通功能語法化而
來的。
Abstract In this study, the relationship between form and
function of questionsin Mandarin conversation is investigated in
order to see how communicative function motivates linguistic
form. The corpus used for this study is composed of 31
spontaneous conversations for a total of 189 minutes. Each
question token is classified in terms of its grammatical form
and communicative function. From the perspective of
grammatical form, questions are first grouped into clausal and
nonclausal and each separately further classified into question-
word questions, disjunctive questions, sentence-final particle
questions, independent particle questions, A-not-A questions,
Tag questionsand declarative questions. Declarative questions
and some nonclausal questions are particularly interesting in
that recipients are able to recognize them as questions despite
the fact that they lack an overt interrogative form. Factors
like lexical and morphosyntactic markings,the accessibility of
information and the sequence of speakership and their
interaction have been shown to be involved. Some declarative
questions and nonclausal questions are ''marked'' by question
indicators. As to the ''unmarked'' questions, some are ''truly
plain'' questions whereas others arenext-turn repair initiators
(NTRI''s). Since question indicators canalso be used in
conjunction with other linguistic elements to
realizecommunicative functions other than questions, they alone
are not sufficient to trigger the interpretation of declarative
and nonclausal questions. For both ''marked'' and ''unmarked''
declarative as well as nonclausal questions, the decisive
factors have been shown to be the information status of the
participants and the sequential position of the utterance.
From the perspective of communicative meaning, four general
categories are distinguished: external questions, talk
questions, relational questions and expressive questions. These
four question functions can be arranged along a continuum. The
continuum from left to right ranges from more uncertain to less
uncertain in terms of speaker''s degree of certainty, or from
information seeking to information conveying in terms of the
speaker''s communicative goal. The continuum also shows that
questions have a way ofmoving from seeking objective,
referential information towards expressing more subjective,
speaker-based attitudes and points of view. Therefore, the
mechanism of subjectification or speaker-involvement seems to be
working in the area of grammatical constructions. Results of
the analysis display a many-to-many relationship between the
form and function of questions in Mandarin conversation.
However, there is an unmistakable correlation between form and
function. Speakers tend to use question-word questions, A-not-A
questions and questions with particle ma to seek external
information, declarative questions, tag questions and questions
with particles other than ma to seek information about discourse
itself, questions with sentence-final particles and A-not-A
quest to seek verbal relationship, and question-word questions
and tag questions for expressive purposes. These and other
demonstrate that the linguistic forms of questions are
functionally motivated.
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