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研究生:陳韶妤
研究生(外文):Chen, Sao-Yu
論文名稱:數種藤蔓植物之形態生理特性對其生長表現之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Morphophysiological Characters on Growth Performance in Several Vines
指導教授:張育森張育森引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yu-Sen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:藤蔓植物生理特性
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  藤蔓植物因其具有生長快速,在空間利用上極具彈性之特性,故只需適當的小空
間即可快速達大面積綠化效果,對於寸土寸金之現代化都市而言實為優之綠化植物材
料。然而,臺灣本土性藤蔓之科學性調查十分缺乏;且實際應用於都市綠化時,植物
常會面臨建築物所造成的遮陰與乾旱問題;再者,因藤蔓植物依附他物向上生長之特
色,因而其生長速度、上架所需時間成為綠美化效果之重要影響因素;這些現象都會
造成實際應用上的限制,本論文針對上述問題,試著提供一些改善方案。
  本試驗首先針對植物木質部導管之解剖構造以及木質部之液流速率兩者之關聯程
度進行探討。以臺灣地區常見之藤蔓植物─龍吐珠(Clerodendrum speciosum)、使君子
(Quisqualis indica)、蒜香藤(Pseudocalymma alliaceum)為主,與常綠灌木─黃金金露華
(Duranta repens cv. Govlden Leaves)進行木質化枝條之比較。結果顯示:三種藤蔓植物
的最大導管直徑與大導管密度均大於黃金金露華。而三種藤蔓植物幼嫩枝條之總導管
密度都高於木質化枝條,但木質化枝條的導管直徑都有加大之現象。其中以龍吐珠具
有高之輸導組織比例,其次為蒜香藤,而以使君子最低;大導管密度與最大導管直徑
也以龍吐珠居首位。此外,以莖流測定裝置(Flow2 stem-flow gauges)測量三種藤蔓植物
之木質部液流速率。結果顯示:龍吐珠具有最高水份運輸速率,蒜香藤次之,使君子
最低,此與其莖部輸導組織比例呈現正相關。
  以臺灣地區常見藤蔓植物─使君子(Quisqualis indica)、龍吐珠(Clerodendrum
speciosum)、蒜香藤(Pseudocalymma alliaceum)、薜荔(Ficus pumila)進行生長速度調
查與光合作用、蒸散作用測定。結果指出:兩次的生長速度調查中,皆以龍吐珠生長
速度最快,具有最大的每日株高生長量與節間長,其次依序為使君子、蒜香藤、薜荔;
且生長速度與光合作用、蒸散作用具密切之相關,即生長速度較快者具有較高之光合
作用與蒸散作用。另擬利用GAs處理(100 ppm, 200 ppm)上述藤蔓植物,期能加速其
生長以縮短植物上架所需時間。結果兩次GAs試驗均顯示薜荔對GAs處理不具生長促
進之反應,而GAs對蒜香藤與龍吐珠有較明顯之促進生長效果,對使君子亦有部份促
進生長反應。濃度方面建議以100 ppm即可,因200 ppm處理與100 ppm處理株之間
普遍無顯著差異存在,有時甚至會造成部份植株葉片變小、莖變細之生長異常現象。
  利用藤蔓植物依附他物向上生長之特性,可進行向垂直空間發展之立體綠化。但
生長於都市中的植物常需面對遮陰與乾旱問題。故本試驗擬簡易之耐旱性指標─葉片
水份散失速率與葉片相對水份含量(Relative water content),以及耐陰性指標─葉
片相對葉綠素含量之變化,針對臺灣地區常見藤蔓植物:忍冬(L. japonica)、錦屏藤
(C. sicyoides 'Ovata')、光耀藤(V. elliptica)、珊瑚藤(A. leptopus)、使君子(Q.
indica)、龍吐珠(C. thomsonae)、炮仗花(P. venusta)、軟枝黃蟬(A. cathartica)、
蒜香藤(P. alliaceum)進行測定,篩選出較具耐陰、耐旱潛力之種類以供應用之參考。
結果指出:依據此種耐旱性指標大致可將供試植物分為三群,第一群為較耐旱種類:
包括忍冬、錦屏藤,與光耀藤、乾枝黃蟬等。第二群為較不耐旱種類,即珊瑚藤、龍
吐珠、使君子等。第三群為耐旱性居於上二群之間者:包括蒜香藤、炮仗花等。而在
耐旱性指標之應用方面,以測定相對水量之方法似較適用於植物耐旱性之篩選。再依
葉片相對葉綠素含量之耐陰性指標,可將所調查之藤蔓植物大致分為三群:第一群為
較具耐陰潛力者,包括龍吐珠與忍冬。第二群為較不耐陰者,錦屏藤與炮使花屬之。
第三群為耐陰性居於上二群之間者,包括使君子、蒜香藤、乾枝黃蟬、光耀藤及珊瑚
藤等。


  As the high growth rate and various growth forms, vines can have greening effect rapidly and spaciously although only small space is required. However, presently the information of vines in limited in Taiwan, and plants are susceptible to drought and shade stress caused by buildings in urban areas. In addition, vines attach other objects to grow upward, and the greening effect is influced by the growth rate and the time required for climbing up the trellis.
  Firstly, the relations between xylem structure and xylem sap flow rate were investigated. The major plant materials were Clerodendrum speciosum, Quisqualis indica, and Pseudocalymma alliaceum, as the popular vines in Taiwan, together with shrub Duranta repens cv. Golden Leaves. The results showed that the maximum vessel diameter and the large vessel density were higher in three vines than those in D. repens cv. Golden Leaves. The total vessel density in new shoot was higher than those in woody branch in all tested vines. But vessel diameter was higher in woody branc. C. speciosum had the highest percent vessel areas, then the P. alliaceum, and Q. indica was the lowest. C. speciosum also had the highest large vessel density and maximum vessel diameter. Next, sap flow rate was measured by using Flow2 stem-flow gauges. The results showed that C. speciosum had the highest sap flow rate, then the P. alliaceum, and Q. indica was the lowest. Therefore, the vessel diameter and the percent vessel areas were positively related to sap flow rate.
  The survey of growth rate showed that the ranking of the daily growth rate and internode length were C. speciosum, Q. indica, P. alliaceum, and F. Pumila respectivly. The growth rate was positive related to photosynthesis and transpiration. The growth rate in P. alliaceum and C. speciosum was promoted by Gas treatments, contrasting to no or little responses in F. pumilla and Q. indica respectively. Gas of 100 ppm was suggested, as there was no marked difference between 100 ppm and 200 ppm treatments, and the 200 ppm treatment would cause plants with smaller leaves and thinner stem on some occasions.
  To select species with drought and shade tolerance, some parameters were used including simplicity index of drought tolerance- leaves water lose rate, relative water content, and shade tolerance- changes of relative leaf chlorophyll content. The experimental plants were popular vines in Taiwan —L. japonica, C. sicyoides 'Ovata', V. elliptica, A. leptopus, Q. indica, C. speciosum, P. venusta, A. cathartica, and P. alliaceum. The drought tolerance of tested plants could be divided into three groups: 1)strong, L. japonica, C. sicyoides 'Ovata', V. elliptica, and A. cathartica. 2)medium, A. leptopus, Q. indica, and C. speciosum, 3)mild, P. venusta and P. Alliaceum. The shade tolerance of tested plants could be divided into three groups: 1)strong, L. japonica, and C. speciosum. 2)medium, C. sicyoides 'Ovata' and P. Venusta. 3)mild, V. elliptica, A. cathartica, A. leptopus, Q. indica, and P. Alliaceum.

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