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研究生:鍾燿年
研究生(外文):Chung, Alec Yao-Nian
論文名稱:應用超臨界二氧化碳脫脂原料於紹興酒釀製之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Making of Shaohsing Wine by Using the Supercritical CO2 Defatted Materials
指導教授:劉益善孫璐西孫璐西引用關係黃顯宗黃顯宗引用關係潘懷宗潘懷宗引用關係廖怡禎
指導教授(外文):Mau-Kuei ChangNai-Teh WuYing-Lung YouFu-Chang WangHEO TA-AN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:微生物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:微生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:超臨界二氧化碳飽和度紹興酒
外文關鍵詞:SC-CO2saturationShaohsingqu
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紹興酒是麴釀酒類的一種,也是臺灣省菸酒公賣局的暢銷酒類之 一
。紹興酒的製作除酒麴使用部分小麥所製之麥麴外,其餘原料皆為 白米
,故原料米之品質對酒之優劣有決定性影響。糙米米糠中所含營 養物質
豐富(如蛋白質、脂肪等),但其中不飽和脂肪酸及色素對酒 液之色香
味有不良影響。因此釀酒用米須經精白,但紹興酒中胺基酸 成分比其他
酒類要高,所以原料中之蛋白質要保存,而會影響風味之 不良成分則要
去除。 超臨界二氧
化碳具有理想萃取溶劑之大部分優點。若以超臨界二 氧化碳來脫脂,則
由於超臨界二氧化碳對不飽和脂肪酸之溶解度比飽 和脂肪酸高,且不會
萃出蛋白質,故不但可以避免不飽和脂肪酸對香 氣之影響,也可避免精
白過程之耗損,提高原料米的利用率,更可保 存原料米中蛋白質及胺基
酸,而保有紹興酒之特有香味. 本研究擬以超臨界二氧化碳
來萃取釀酒原料之油脂,期望能將原 料中油脂成分降低,提高原料之油
脂飽和度,並探討壓力與溫度對超 臨界二氧化碳脫脂的影響。接著以脫
脂後之原料釀酒,以瞭解超臨界 二氧化碳脫脂對紹興酒之製成是否有正
面的效果。其主要成果分述如 下:

(1)本實驗以連續流動法測定釀酒原料在壓力 4000∼5000 psig,
溫度 40∼60℃之 CO2 中的油脂萃出量及溶解度。結果發現 在 4500
psig,60℃的條件下,不論是糯糙米、蓬萊糙米或碎小麥在 油脂萃出量
、溶解度與脫脂糙米之含油量及飽和度上,均具有最佳的 效果。糯糙米
之值分別是 0.3147g、0.1474g/l、2.23﹪及 0.375。 蓬萊糙米之值則
為 0.4283g、0.2006g/l、3.38﹪及 0.224。碎小麥 之值則為 1.0206g
、0.4780g/l、1.27﹪及0.233。另外以 SC-CO2 脫 脂對原料米之外表會
產生較多破洞,但對內部構造沒有影響。 (2)麴菌主要的釀
酒酵素有澱粉分解酵素 (α-amylase、 glucoamylase) 及酸性
蛋白質分解酵素 (acid protease、acid carboxypeptidase)。以
各種不同原料製麴後,各酵素力值中,米麴 以原白米麴及 SC-CO2 糙
米麴表現為佳,麥麴則以原小麥麴及 SC- CO2 小麥麴最好。脫脂白米
麴的酵素力均比原白米麴低,但脫脂糙米 的酵素力則比未處理者高很多
。小麥經超臨界二氧化碳脫脂處理後, 使其麴中之澱粉分解酵素活性降
低 20∼30﹪,酸性蛋白質分解酵素 活性提高 30∼50﹪。

(3)在釀成酒之成分分析上,加入 SC-CO2 麥麩麴之處理酒其色 度較高
,吸光度可提高 50∼70﹪,有加速熟陳的效果,但麩麴之蛋 白質分解
酵素活性較低,故酒中胺基酸含量較其它處理低;以糙米為 原料之處理
酒其酒精度最低,但總酸度最高。其餘酒液成分大致與對 照酒相當。

(4)在將酒液以 GC 分析之揮發性香氣成分上,經氣相層析儀分 析後,
除酯類中之 Ethyl lactate 含量降低與 Ethyl caprate 及 Ethyl
paltimate 含量增加有一致的效果外,其餘均互有高低。各處 理酒之乙
酸乙酯以處理一(含現用的米麴、醪米飯及脫脂麥麴)與 處理五(含
脫脂精白米麴、脫脂麥麩麴及脫脂精白醪米飯)的含量較 高,而以處理
四(含脫脂精白的米麴、醪米飯及脫脂麥麴)與處理六 (含脫脂糙米麴
、脫脂糙米醪米飯及脫脂麥麴)較低。 (5)最後在品
評結果上,各處理酒依品評員之喜好順序排列後, 經統計分析發現其
差異雖不顯著,但由其排序中仍可看出使用脫脂麥 麴 (處理一) 或脫脂
麥麩麴 (處理二與處理五) 的紹興酒其品評結 果較對照酒佳,顯示使
用 SC-CO2 脫脂後的麥麴或麩麴所釀成之紹興 酒,確可改善紹興酒的品
質。
Shaohsing wine is a kind of qu-brewed wine as well as one
of the popular alcooholic prooduct on the local market. Except
part off it,s qu is made from wheat, the rest materials are all
belong to polished rice. Therefore, the quality off the rice
affect the final wine product exte-nsively. The nutritious
constitutents such as protein and fat are higher in the bran
of brown rice. The amino acids of protein contribute the typical
flavor and taste of shaohsing wine, but the unsaturated fatty
acids and some impurties have negative effects on the wine
quality. Generally, all of these constitutents have been reduced
by using the polished rice. How to remove the unwanted material
from the grain and in the mean time keep the protein remain in
the rice is a very interesting topic.

The super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been used
successffully as a kind of extraction solvent in food industry
for many years. The present study is using the SC-CO2 defatted
materials for making Shaohsing wine which may have the following
advantages: (1) the protein cannot be extracted out by SC-CO2,
(2) the solubility of unsaturated fatty acid is higher than that
of the saturated fatty acid in SC-CO2, (3) less loss than
polished rice.

The oil off the rice grains and the wheat grists have been
continuous extracted with mobile super critical car-bon dioxide
fluid at the temperature of 40℃, 50℃, 60℃ and the pressure
of 4000, 4500, 5000 psig. The most suitable extraction condition
for brown waxy rice, brown Pon-Lai rice and wheat grists are
all found at 60℃ and 4500 psig. The total amount of oil
extracted, oil solubility, oil content and saturation degree
for the defatted brown waxy rice are 0.3147g, 0.147g/l, 2.23
﹪and 0.375; for the defatted brown Pon-Lai rice are 0.4283g,
0.2006g/l, 3.38﹪and 0.224; for the defatted wheat grists are
1.0206g, 0.4780g/l, 1.27﹪and 0.233.

The defatted wheat have been used for wheat qu preparation,
the α-amylase and glucoamylase activity are lower to 20∼30
﹪, while the acid protease and acid carboxypeptidase activity
are higher to 30∼50﹪when compared with undefatted wheat qu.
Lower in enzyme act-ivities of defatted polished rice qu, and
higher enzyme activities in defatted brown rice qu have also
been observed.

The alcohol fermentation is inhibited by using defat-ted
brown rice but not for defatted polished rice. Using
the defatted wheat bran qu for Shaohsing wine making can
increase the color intensity up to 50∼70﹪.
The effect of using the defatted materials for the volatile
flavor compounds of Shaohsing wine have been analyzed by GC.
The lower in n-propanol and ethyl lactate content, and higher
in ethyl caprate, ethyl paltimate and total ester content have
been observed.

Sensory tests have been carried by using the Berverage
Testing Institute 14-point hedonic scale. The evaluation result
is statistically analyzed by Krammer ranking test. Although no
significant result (5﹪level) was obtained by using the
defatted material,but from the order of the preference sequence,
better results can be obtained by using the defatted wheat qu
or defatted wheat bran qu for making the Shaohsing wine.
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