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研究生:謝湘麗
研究生(外文):Shieh, shiang-li
論文名稱:《論語》人格類型之恥感研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies of The Confucian Analects''s character genres with the ethical shame
指導教授:高柏園高柏園引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kao Po-yawn
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:中國文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:論語人格類型
外文關鍵詞:The Confucian Analectscharacter genres
相關次數:
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本論文在於說明恥感和人格類型之間的關聯,若人對自己之行為感到不安
、不滿足及心虛,就是有「恥」的生發。有了恥之後,則人的行為將隨之
改變,有所要求,端視其恥感之指向而不同,若有道德心性上追求則可成
就聖人、君子,此乃道德性恥感,亦名為恥德。若是在物質上追求,而忽
略了對己身之道德修養,則屬小人之行為,只能云其有恥感之產生。筆者
以君子及小人皆有恥的具存,而稱其皆有恥感,事實上其中內涵乃是不同
。君子因其品德之要求而在內聖外王之上有所修持保守,在此心安之際,
而能透顯出其人格上之逍遙。而小人則因其以衣食物欲上的限制,為了追
求物質上的滿足,而終日汲汲營營患得患失,至於墮落失德。是以對於小
人之恥感,應予其轉化,使其復歸天性之中本然之善性,成為追求仁德之
君子,方能明恥之真義。第一章緒論在就前人對《論語》中人格類型的探
討,以及在社會學所提出的「恥感」觀點做一研究成果的考察。蓋《論語
》全書乃是對人成德之教育,所注重的是各種人格的行為表徵,孔子教其
弟子需累積德行而以成聖成賢為其人格建立的目標。恥感乃是一個人的行
為動機,也是人格建立的關鍵,故可知恥感和人格建立間的關連是相當密
切的。第二章在將《論語》中人格類型作一呈現,《論語》之中所提出的
各類人格類型作一分類和解析,以明孔子所判定各種不同人格類型之存在
內涵。及孔子透過和人格類型的解析,可見孔子所希冀和盼望的道德人格
層次。藉由人格類型之整理,能知人外在所表現的行住坐臥應有的行為,
以及在心性應如何把持才能合乎孔子所提出的道德規範,於自己心、念、
行中都能以自身成德目標前進。第三章旨在說明恥感,先對恥感和罪感之
不同作一解析,再以君子具恥德的角度觀之,則仁與禮乃此恥德所成立的
基本要求。又對《論語》之中所提出人所犯的過惡作一詮釋,但這些過惡
之行乃儒者所體認出避免去做的恥之來源。在人能明恥之後,如何能使自
己不再有恥感。就是要自省、慎獨,以讓自己能有一個反觀自鑑和生命把
持的行為。第四章筆者將《論語》中體仁行道之人格階層及成德之行為修
養工夫作一整理,及以恥感如何能成為一分判的標準,以知各類人格所具
備不同恥感的表現。而具恥德之君子,除了修己身之德外,更能夠將其德
性發揚,使民同歸於好善。第五章在對全文之回顧,並提出本文之限制以
及未來發展方向。從各學派對於人格類型之探討,能了解各家所肯定之行
為恥感何在,並知其中心思想,透過此觀點之檢視,亦可比較各家所論人
格之意義,關聯及其時代性,以建構出人格理論之整體面貌。
This thesis is to explain the connected between shame and the
character genres. If somebody emerges shame his could feel
unpeaceful and malcontent in his behavior. Somebody feels shame
he well to request himself and change his behavior. This means
he has moral concept in heart. We can say he is a person of
virtue or saint.. He is to provided with virtue. If a person is
to pursue ma-terial life but to neglect self-cultivation we can
call he is a mean person. The author seems a person of virtue
and means persons have shame but they have different way so they
have different achievement. Because of a person of virtue can
request himself with a learning both sounds in theory and
practice. He can setting his mind to character enjoy and
carefree. The mean person could be to peruse material life for
the sake of appearance to be eager to worry about worldly gains
and losses. With regard to the mean persons shame must be
change to make him to regain nature true features. Thus the mean
person well be charge to a person of virtue. Chapter one is to
induce predecessor research and sociologist presentational the
means of shame. The Confucian Analects is going to educate
person accomplishment mastery that empha-sizes various kinds''
behaviors behave. Confucians teach their students must to
accumulate sense of morality. Shame could cause a person
behavior. So their relation is very close.Chapter two to make on
the Confucian analects of personality category and analysis. In
order to understand the Confucian analects to distinguish
different kind of personality intension. Confucian is to go
through elaborate the meaning of personality type. We could know
Confucius craves for moral''s personality level of structure. By
mean of tidy up the type of personality we well know outside
expression words and deeds should be doing. By one self mind be
able to complete him-self virtuous norm. Chapter three is
elucidation shame first analyze shame and sin. By mean of a
virtue person point that benevolence and ceremony are the shame
of virtue basic demand. Then annotation the Confu-cian analects
put forward to human mistake and evil doing. Behind people be
able to understand honor he well examines himself. Let oneself
have a look back and keep control of his life.Chapter four tidy
up the level of personality to comprehend benevolence practice
virtue and personality accomplishment. The shame can becoming
that be to tell apart personality level. We know different kinds
of personality to behave benevolence. The virtue of shame well
be virtue person beside self-cultivation more could enhance his
character. Make people identical to return kind. Chapter five is
casting backward glance the whole text. Moreover to raise this
article confine and future development direction. Form each
school of though in regard to explore personality type. We could
know different school of though affirmative deed. Furthermore
get the message their central idea. To undergo this view examine
also might comparison each school of though discus-sion the
means of character. We could know there connected and character
of period. In order to do establish personality theories the
whole facial appearance.
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