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研究生:呂宏進
研究生(外文):Leu, Hong Jin
論文名稱:中俄傳統節日之比較
論文名稱(外文):Comparison Between Chinese and Russian Festivals
指導教授:鄭志明, 阿直馬穆多娃
指導教授(外文):Cheng Jyh Ming, Adgimamoudovr
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:俄羅斯研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:250
中文關鍵詞:中俄傳統節日比較禮儀風俗
外文關鍵詞:ChineseRussianfestivalholiadyceremomycustom
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論文提要內容: 目前國內尚無比較中俄傳統節日的專書,但欲了解漢俄兩
族之風俗民情, 傳統節日之比較研究,是一種極為可行的方法。 本文係
以「文獻參考法」為主,部分「實地調查」為輔;在技術層次上,運用蒐集
之台灣、大陸、俄國、美國資料與部分臺灣實地觀察之記錄,予以歸納、
比較、分析,其中比較分析大部分為筆者個人的看法,且以節日的原始心理
探討分析格外重要。 比文旨在探討下列問題:1.了解中俄有那些主要傳
統節日。2.比較分析中俄傳統的節日文化異同。3.探索中俄傳統節日的意
義、心理因素及社會功能。4.發現中俄傳統節日的內容特性與節日心理
。5.論證何種「假設理論」,較適合中俄傳統節日的比較, 並提出對該理
論的修正。6.總結並探討未來的研究方向。 根據上述研究目的,本文主要
研究結果如下:1.總體而言,中俄傳統的節日文化:共同形成一個特色,即在
總類、形式與進行方式,差距較大,但一觸及心理與目的,其差距相當小
。2.中俄傳統節日的意義,主要可從四個面向來看:即個人、社會、宗教、
文化藝術方面。其次,節日的心理,可由節前的準備心理、原始信仰心理來
論述;而關於社會功能則由:凝聚親族情感與人情交往、情感宣泄與調節身
心、整合社群與形成社會集體意識、發揚民族精神與穩定社會文化來探討
。3.關於中俄傳統節日的內容特性主要有九點:即時序性、巫術性、紀念
性、宗教 性、群體性、家庭性、祈願性、娛樂性、越軌性等九點。而節
日的心理分析,主要有敬神祀祖心理、畏鬼避邪心態、祈求風調雨順與穀
物豐收的願望、重視親情和強調群體合作、追求個人生命及幸福的情愫五
項。4.關於理論方面,本文研究發現「文化決定論」、「地理決定論」、
「種族決定論」等三種理論皆是決定(影響)節日文化的因素之一,故筆者
將其修正為「節日文化相融論」、「節日文化時空種族論」,其次,關於「
節日文化相對論 」的觀點,則為研究節日文化者,所應抱持的態度。以上
是本文主要的研究結果。最後,筆者認為,世界各族的民族性與生活方式,
在形式上雖然不盡相同,但其傳統的節日文化,在本質上卻有許多相似之
處,這可從中俄傳統節日的:原始信仰心理探討、內容特性說明,以及心理
分析可以看出。因此,可以說人類在:傳統的節日文化其深層結構依舊是共
通的。
Abstract: There has been no books abount comparison between
Chinese and Ru-ssian festivals in Taiwan so far. Yet the
study of festivals could be oneof the best ways to
penetrate the custom and habits of the Han and Russianpeoples.
This motivates me to engage on my research. The thesis
iscompeted mainly by referencing the documents and partly by
surveying. Themethodolog is based on induction,
comparison and analysis of the informa-tion collected and
observed. Most of all, discussion of the psychological aspect
of the original faith is key in my thesis. The purpose
of this thesis is to probe into: (1) Understanding important
festivals in China and Russia. (2) Comparing and analyzing the
similarities and differences betweenChinese and Russian
Festivals. (3) Exploring the significance, psycholog-ical
fators and social functions of the Chinese and Russian
festivals. (4) Findingout traits and psychological aspect
of Chinese and Russian festivals.(5) Debating the most
suitable theory for comparison of Chinese and Russian
festivals. (6) Concluding and pointing out possible
directions for fu-rtherstudy. According to the purpose of the
thesis metioned above, the co-nclusion of this research could
be summarized as: 1. After comparison, fea-tures of Chinese
and Russian festivals could be: culture in both countries
varies remarkably in terms of sorts, forms and ceremonies of the
festivals, but both culture differ less and less from each
other when the psychological aspect and the purpose of
festivals are taken into consideration. 2. The signigicance of
Chinese and Russian festivals could be explained
from personalreligious plus cultural and artistic aspects
Next, the psychological aspects for festivals could be discussed
by preparation before festivals and psycho-logy of the
original faith. Then social functions could be concluded as--
the unionization of families and interaction with people,
outlet for feelings,and balance beween physical and mentality,
conformity of the communites and formation of the social
consciousness, finally exaltation of ethical spiritand
stabilization of culture. 3. Traits of the Chinese and Ruassian
festivalscould be counted as-- the seasons change,
witchcraft, memorial quality, religiousness, gregariousness,
family activities, pray and expectation,entertainment,
transgression, etc... Besides, psychological analysis for
festivals covers apects such as god and ancestor worship,
escape from ghost and evil, pray for clement weather and
abundant harvest, emphasis on family affection and cooperation
of community, and at last pursuit for personal happiness.
4. Concering theories applied, the thesis expounds that
CulturalDeterminism and Geographical Determinism and Racial
Determinism are the important factors to influence on festive
culture. Combining and mending the three theories, I postulate
"The theory of Mixture of Festive Culture," or "Historical,
Geographical and Racial Determinism." Furthermore,
cutualrelativism is the view point necessary for any scholars
who engage on cultural study on festivals.   Although the
national characters and customs of peoples around the world
are different, the festive culture of various peoples are
similar in essence, which could be testified by the
comparison between Chinese and Russian festivals in my thesis.
Therefore, it should be concluded that the deepest structure of
festive culture whichreflects on humanity is common
universally.
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