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研究生:邱志偉
研究生(外文):CHIU, CHIH-WEI
論文名稱:俄羅斯與南韓貿易關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Russia-South Korea Trade Relations
指導教授:歐安得
指導教授(外文):Andrei Ostrovsky
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:俄羅斯研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1997
畢業學年度:85
語文別:中文
論文頁數:219
中文關鍵詞:俄羅斯南韓貿易北方政策新思維戈巴契夫
外文關鍵詞:RUSSIASOUTH KOREATRADENORTHEN POLICYNEW THINKINGGORBACHEV
相關次數:
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前蘇聯總統戈巴契夫的「新思維」改革下, 俄羅斯與亞洲各國的經
貿關係擺脫不利整合的歷史糾葛由敵對猜忌、附庸關係轉變為密切且持續
成長的合作互動。 地緣之便使得南韓、日本自然而直接建立與俄羅斯的
貿易關係。 但俄日無法突破的北方四島主權問題影響了兩國貿易發展,
南韓反在國家積極的北方政策引導下,近十年來已成為俄羅斯與東歐等國
家重要的貿易伙伴。 東亞複雜的歷史、民族等糾葛,致使本區域的經貿
合作停留在規畫醞釀的階段。 但從俄韓成功發展雙邊貿易的交流過程,
將可作為研究東亞區域經貿合作的模式。 本文由前蘇聯與南韓貿易關
係及解體後俄羅斯與南韓貿易關係的差異出發, 再論及 1986 年戈巴契
夫推行新思維政策至 1996 年十年間影響兩國的貿易關係的國內及國際
因素,以作為瞭解東亞各國與俄羅斯貿易的佐證。 首先運用國際分工理
論、需求互補理論、整合理論等切入探討俄韓兩國貿易展的背景及發展經
過, 再分析比較兩國貿易體系的差異。 其次探討兩國十年來相互貿易結
構的轉變、分析影響俄韓兩國貿易交流的主要因素而得出以下歸納: (
一)俄韓貿易發展過程依規模可分為三個階段, 從冷戰時期有限的間接
貿易、戈巴契夫時期的擴大成長期,一直到蘇聯解體後葉爾欽執政的穩定
期。 十年間雙方貿易額成長了 55 倍之主要因素是國家經改政策突破了
傳統意識形態的藩籬。 (二)雙方貿易結構的互補性與地緣之便使兩國
貿易合作迅速擴張:俄羅斯遠東經濟區本擁有豐富天然資源, 卻因國內
經濟體制轉軌過程的惡化及缺乏資金技術而無力開發, 對擁有資本及生
產技術的新興工業化國家提供了貿易合作的誘因, 此外日俄因領土爭議
冷卻的合作意願,更促使俄韓貿易成長一日千里。 本文發現俄韓經濟
技術發展層次的不同是形成兩國貿易互動的重要誘因, 在政府外貿走向
的強勢引導下依循國際分工理論進一步深化兩國貿易, 對兩國經濟絕對
有正面的影響。 短期內東北亞似乎無法形成與歐體及北美自由貿易區相
抗衡之經濟組織, 但各自以專業領域進行雙邊貿易交流的合作模式卻大
有可為,而俄羅斯優越的軍事科技與基礎科學正與南韓的應用科學與生產
科技強烈互補, 俄韓應由產官學界積極提昇技術轉移合作, 以合作開發
遠東經濟區為基礎,不日必能成為雄霸東北亞的經濟體。 而台灣與南韓
的經濟環境、經濟成長、對外貿易模式都極為相似,在政府戒急用忍的大
陸經貿政策以及南向政策的有限成果下, 成功的俄韓貿易關係應可作為
政府發展「北向政策」及強化對俄貿易關係的重要借鏡。
Under the reform of the "New Thinking" adopted by the
late USSRpresident Michel Gorbachev, Russia and Asian
countries got rid of theirunfavorable historical imbroglio and
transferred from the relationship ofantagonism, skepticism,
attachment into a closely interactive persistentcooperation.
South Korea and Japan established their trade relationshipwith
Russia with the convenience of regionalism. South Korea, under
itsnational northward policy, had became an important trade
partner withRussia and East European countries in the past
decade, while the quarrelover the sovereignty of the
northern four small islands hinderedRussia-Japan bilateral
trade growth. Complicated Asian history and ethnicimbroglio both
contributed to the intact planning phase of this
regionaleconomic and trade cooperation. The successful
Russian-South Koreabilateral trade development process can be
a model for the study on EastAsia Regional Cooperation. This
thesis begins from the difference of late USSR and South
Koreatrade relationship with that of the evolving one after
the debacle ofSoviet Union, and then discussing the domestic
and international factorswhich influenced bilateral trade
relationship from the period of "NewThinking Policy" adopted
by Gorbachev in 1986 to the following ten years,as a proof that
East Asian countries traded with Russia. First, probinginto
the background and process of the Russia-South Korea bilateral
traderel ationship through the theories of International
Division of Labor,Demand Complementary, and Integration, and
then comparing the differenceof their trade systems.
Secondly, exploring into the transition ofbilateral trade
framework and analyzing the main factors affectingRussia-
South Korea would result in some generalization as follows:
(1)The development of Russia-South Korea bilateral trade
relationship couldbe divided into three phases by scale, from
the limited indirect trade inCold War and the Gor bachev
expansion growth period to the stable periodwhich Boris Yelsin
came into power. The main reason of bilateral fiftyfivefold
trade amounts was because of national economic
policiessurmounting over the traditional ideological
barrier. (2) Thecomplementation of bilateral trade
framework and regional convenienceimproved bilateral
cooperation of trade expansion: Although Russian FarEast
territories are abundant in natural resources, but Russians
wereunable to develop these areas, for the lack of cap ital
and technologyfrom the deterioration of domestically economic
transition process. Forthe sake of the settlement of
territorial conflict between Russia andJapan, the trade
growth of Russia-South Korea rose extraordinarily withthe
investment of the Newly Industrializing Countries which were
abundantin capital and production technology. The thesis
found that the main attraction factors which triggeredRussia-
South-Korea bilateral trade growth was due to the difference
oftheir economic technological development levels. Under
the powerfulgovernmental trade--oriented policy guidelines
which followed theInternational Division of Labor Theory,
there surly would be existing apositive effect upon bilateral
economies. North-Eastern Asia doesn''t seemto form an economic
bloc which can be compared with those of EuropeanCommunity
and No rth American Free Trade Agreement in the short run,
however, with the cooperation model of individual
professionaldevelopment, North-Eastern Asia would be promising
in the long run withthe powerful complementation of Russian
sophisticated military technologyand South Korean applied
science and production technology. Theauthorities
concerned of Russia and South Korea should
aggressivelypromote technology transition cooperation to
develop the Far EastEconomic Region as a basis for the
future dominant e conomic bloc. Theeconomic environment,
growth, and external trade models of South Koreaand Taiwan
are very much alike. Faced by the limited achievement of"
Patient Mainland Economic and Trade Policy" and "Southward
Policy, " thesuccessful Russia-South Korea trade
relationship could be a crucialreference for the "Northward
Policy" of our government.
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