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研究生:康倫毓
論文名稱:徵收空氣污染防制費對家計部門清潔效益之估算
論文名稱(外文):An Evaluation of the Benefits to Household Cleanness of the Implementation of the Air Polltion Emission Fees Program
指導教授:許志義許志義引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:經濟研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
外文關鍵詞:Benefit-Cost AnalysisAlmost Ideal Demand ModelAir Pollution
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  空氣污染防制費自民國84年7月1日開徵,希望能藉由空污費的徵收來減少污染的排放量,同時能透過空氣污染防制費的有效運用來改善空氣品質,而本文僅針對空氣污染防制迄今,對家計部門所產生的清潔效益進行估算。
  首先,利用家計部門生產函數建立於理論模型,接著以錢玉蘭、蕭代基(0996),「臺灣大都會地區改善空氣品質之經濟效益評估與酸雨風陰認知調查」的問卷調查資料為樣本,對超對數及近似理想需求函數的實證模型進行配適比較。結果顯示:近似理想需求函數配適之判定係數較高,符合加總性、齊次性及對稱性限制條件,而價格變數與屬性變數之估計結果亦相當合理,因此,推論近似理想需求函數為解釋臺灣清潔需求型態的較適模型。
  由近似理想需求函數所推估之85及86會計年度空污費執行所帶來臺灣地區家戶清潔效益分別為每戶2101元及651元,加總每戶效益後,臺灣地區總清潔效益分別為128億元及39億元,與空污費實際執行的歲出相較,推論空污費執行迄今之效益大於成本。並由推算之各都會地區補償變量性質,建議政府以效率的觀點使用空氣污染防制費時,應將防制資源優先使用於改善都市化程度愈高,人口數愈多,污染程度愈嚴重地區的空氣品質。


  The Environmental Protection Agency of Taiwan launched the Air Pollution emission Fees Program to levy emission fees on petroleum products; July 1, 1995. The purpose of such a program is to provide economic incentives to change peoples' behavior towards the consumption oc luels and to collect fees to be used for the improvment of air quality.
  The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the emission fees program on household cleanness. In order to achieve this objective, we first employ a household production function in accordance with the theory of consumption behavior. Two models are utilized in this study, i.e., the translog function model and the almost ideal demand function medel. We utilize cross-section data to it into these models and find that the almost ideal demand model has more significant explanatory power. Therefore, we infer that this model is a better functional form for expressing the cleanness behavior of Taiman's households.
  The estimated results of the total benefits for household cleanness resulting from the implementation of air pollution emission fees are NT﹩12.8 and NT﹩3.9 billion for the accounting years of 1996 and 1997, respectively. By comparing expenditure from the air pollution fees, which were designated for the purpose of improving air quality, i.e., NT﹩4.2 and NT﹩3.3 billion for the respective years 1996 and 1997, we can see that the pollution control program is conformable with the benefit-cost principle. Finally, based on the empircal results, policy recommendations are presented in the conclusion.

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