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研究生:林文祺
研究生(外文):Lin, Wen-Chi
論文名稱:紅茶菇之純粹培養暨固定化對其主成份變化與微生物活性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Using Pure Culture Cultivation and Cellular Immobilization On the Microbial Activities and Production of Major Metabolites During the Fermentation of Kombucha
指導教授:陳錦樹陳錦樹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Shuh Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:紅茶菇酵母菌醋酸菌醋酸純粹培養
外文關鍵詞:tea fungusyeastacetic acid bacteriaacetic acidpure culture
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摘要 紅茶菇之微生
物相主要由醋酸菌和酵母菌所組成,兩者共生於紅茶湯液中。紅茶菇成份
包括上層之纖維素薄膜及下層發酵液,後者以醋酸、酒精及葡萄糖酸為主
。傳統上係將部份發酵液及纖維素膜一起移植到一新鮮配製含糖的紅茶湯
液中,於好氣環境下培養7-10天即可飲用。由於目前有相關紅茶菇之生理
及代謝途徑等方面之研究不多,而以純粹培養方式製備紅茶菇的更少見。
本研究以取自紅茶菇之酵母與醋酸菌分離株為菌元,藉由不同菌源組合及
添加不同物質對紅茶菇純粹培養液中主成份變化之影響,探討紅茶菇中酵
母與醋酸菌間之交互作用與代謝之情形。 首先以不同菌源組合進行紅茶
菇發酵試驗,發現酵母Schizo-saccharomyces pombe K-2較Pichia
membranaefaciens YL-01適合用於紅茶菇培養;醋酸量的增加與酒精之生
成量成正比之關係。在醣類代謝方面,菌數有關;在葡萄糖與果糖存在下
醋酸菌會優先代謝葡萄糖。以S. pombe K-2搭配Acetobacter sp. AL-01
及Acetobacter sp. AL-02之純粹培養方式製備紅茶菇,其微生物之代謝
速率較傳統移植法快,但其纖維素產量較傳統移植法生產者低。此外,綠
藻添加有助於提高紅茶菇純粹培養液之醋酸、酒精及葡萄糖酸量且添加量
愈高愈明顯,至於添加花粉或蜂蜜之效果不大。蜂蜜或花粉(未經高溫滅
菌過)於接種後第三天添加會有效增加酵母與醋酸菌之代謝活性,尤其在
醋酸和酒精生成量之增加上效果明顯。酵母菌與醋酸菌經固定化可用於製
備紅茶菇,在發酵期間其醋酸、葡萄糖酸及酒精產量之最高值分別為2.3
%、2.3 % 及1.0 %,其風味與傳統移植法相似。
Abstract The kombucha (or tea fungus) is a symbiotic culture
of having acetic acid bacteria and yeasts as two major
microorganisms. The tea fungus is composed of two portions, a
floating cellulose pellicle layer and thesour liquid broth.
Acetic acid, ethanol, and gluconic acid, are the major
components found in the liquid broth. The fermentation is
traditionally carried out by transplanting a previously
cultivated symbiotic culture, accompanied with the product
cellulose, into a freshly prepared sucrose containing black tea
under aerobic conditions for 7-10 days. Until now only little
literature was available on physiology and metabolic pathway of
tea fungus. In this study, we tried to examine the interaction
occurred between the yeast and bacteria, followed by
investigating the influences of using different combinations of
yeast and acetic acid bacteria isolates as starters, and
different compounds added on metabolic activity of the tea
fungus by using pure cultures. In the study of using different
combinations of yeasts and acetic acidbacteria as starters,the
Schizosaccharomyces pombe K-2 was found to be better then Pichia
membranaefaciens YL-01 in the preparation of the tea fungus. The
production of acetic acid was proportional to that of ethanol.
The consumption rate of sucrose was also closely related to the
viable countof yeast in tea fungus. Glucose, instead of
fructose, was preferentially used by the acetic acid bacteria.
The metabolism rate of the microorganismsin the tea fungus by
using pure cultures combination of S. pomb K-2 with Acetobacter
sp. AL-01 and/or Acetobacter sp. AL-02 was higher than that
ofusing traditional one, but production of cellulose was lower.
It was found that presence of chlorella could enhance the
production of acetic acid, ethanol, and gluconic acid in tea
fungus prepared by using pure cultures. The enhancement was
proportional to the concentration of the chlorella, however,
pollen and honey exerted little effect on the production of
majorcomponents of the tea fungus. If the pollen or honey
(without sterilizationby autoclave) was not added until the tea
fungus had fermented for 3 days. This led to the increased
metabolic activities of both yeast and acetic acid bacteria,
especially productions of both acetic acid and ethanol were
markedlyenhanced. However, chlorella exerted little effect on
production of major products of the tea fungus. The tea
fungus was also prepared by using immobilized yeast and acetic
acid bacteria. Both acetic acid and gluconic acid reached their
maximum values (2.3 %) after 15 days, while the ethanol reached
it''s peak value (1.0%) after 9 days. The flavor of tea fungus
prepared by using immobilized cells was much closed to that of
using traditional transplanting cultures.
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