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研究生:林駿奇
研究生(外文):Lin, Jiun-Chi
論文名稱:台灣青枯病菌之雜草寄主
論文名稱(外文):Weed hosts of Ralstonia(Pseudomonas) solanacearum in Taiwan
指導教授:徐世典
指導教授(外文):Shih-Tien Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物病理學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:青枯病菌雜草
外文關鍵詞:Ralstonia solanacearumWeedPseudomonas solanacearum
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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國外研究證實雜草可扮演青枯病菌之中間寄主,或其根圈可作為青枯
病菌在田間長期 存活場所,而台灣目前尚無雜草寄主之詳細調查報告。
本研究即在探討台灣青枯病菌可能之雜草寄主。 由台灣 16 個縣市 28
個鄉鎮之 73 塊田中,逢機採樣 23 科 78 種 1844株雜草,發現 9 種雜
草包括石竹科 (Caryophllaceae) 之菁芳草 (Drymaria cordato),菊科
(Compositae) 之紫花霍香薊 (Ageratum hosustonianum)、 白花霍香薊
(Ageratumconyzoides)、 鬼針草 (Bidens bipinnata) 和昭和草
(Erechtites valerianafolia),莎草科 (Cyperaceae) 之香附子
(Cyperus rotundus) 和水蜈蚣 (Kyllinga brevifolia), 柳葉菜科
(Oenotheraceae) 之水丁香 (Ludwigia octovalis), 大戟科之飛揚
草(Ephhorbia hirta) 等的根部可分離到青枯病菌,而這些植株均無病徵
表現,且其莖部及根部維管束也無褐化現象。 雜草來源菌株皆屬於第一
生理小種 (race 1) 及第三生物型(biovar 3),在生理生化特性上與作
物來源之菌株相似,但雜草菌株中少數具有鞭毛。雜草來源之 10 個菌株
以莖部穿刺接種於田間常出現的 14 種雜草,結果對菁芳草、霍香薊、昭
和草、香附子、水蜈蚣、龍葵及馬齒莧具有中到高之致病力,而對一支香
、飛揚草、腋下珠和水丁香之致病力極低或無,但在苦蘵上,四個菌株之
病原性很強,其餘則極低或無。雜草來源二個菌株以不傷根土壤澆菌法接
種之結果,在無病徵之植株中,只有水丁香( 對其中之一個菌株 ) 和飛
揚草之根部及莖部偵測不到病菌, 而其餘皆可被病菌侵入植株體內。以
牙籤莖部穿刺接種法及不傷根土壤澆菌法接種豆科及葫蘆科作物,顯示豌
豆、西瓜、南瓜及扁蒲都可被感染而發病,而由無病徵之植株中分離病菌
,發現葫蘆科作物之根及莖基部有很高的帶菌率。雜草來源之菌株在土壤
中族群變化,在八週試驗中,菌量下降不多, 多維持在 106 cfu/g dry
soil 左右,有些菌株 (Pw8 及 Pw21) 在土壤中易產生菌落變異。雜草菌
株可在霍香薊、水蜈蚣和馬齒莧之根及莖內增殖,其中以馬齒莧植株內菌
量最高。 在根圈土壤中, 菌株族群之起伏變化較大, 五週後其族群約
在 106-108cfu/g dry soil 之間。
Weed hosts of Ralstonia solanacearum are reported in many
countries. The weed hosts are considered as sources of
inoculum for bacterial wilt ofsusceptible crops, or may
serve as alternative hosts for long-term survival ofthe pathogen
in fields whenever nonhost plants are cultivated. The
informationon weed hosts for R. solanacearum in Taiwan is
poorly known. This study istherefore to identify the
potential weed hosts of the bacterium in Taiwan.Toual of 1844
weed plants were randomly collected from 73 fields in Taiwan. R.
solanacearum was isolated from the roots of 9 weed species:
Caryophllaceae(Drymaria cordato), Compositae (Ageratum
hosustonianum, Ageratum conyzoides,Bidens bipinnata, Erechtites
valerianafolia), Cyperaceae (Cyperus rotundus,Kyllinga
brevifolia), Oenotheraceae (Ludwigia octovalis), and
Eeuphorbiaceae(Ephorbia hirta). All these plants showed
neither wilt symptoms nor vascularbrowning. All 21 strains of R.
solanacearum from weeds were classified as race1 and biovar 3.
Their physiological and biochemical characteristics
weresimilar to those of strains isolated from the crops, except
that some strainsfrom weeds possessed flagella. The 14 species
of weeds that were frequentlyobserved in the fields were
inoculated at stem with 10 weed strains. Theseweed strains
were moderately to highly virulent to Drymaria cordato,
Ageratumhosustonianum, Erechtites valerianafolia, Cyperus
rotundus, Kyllingabrevifolia, Portulaca oleracea and Solanum
nigrum, and were very low or notvirulent to Verononia cinerea,
Ludwigia octovalis, Phyllanthus urinaria andEphhorbia hirta.
For Physalis angulata, four of the strains were
highlyvirulent, but others were very low virulent or
nonvirulent. Using the soilpouring method for inoculating
the uninjured roots of weed with two weedstrains, R.
solanacearum was not detected in roots and stems of
symptomlessplants of Ludwigia octovalis (excepted one
strain) and Ephhorbia hirta,whereas all other symptomless
plants of weed species were found to be infectedby the pathogen.
Inoculation of crops belonging Leguminosae and
Cucurbitaceaeshowed that pea, watermelon, pumpkin and bottle
gourd were susceptible to R.solanacearum. R. solanacearum
detected in the roots and stems most symptomlessplants of
Cucurbitacous crops. The populations of weed strains in
infestedsoil, during the 8 weeks detection, mostly maintained
at about 106 cfu/g drysoil. During the detection period, some
strains (Pw8 & Pw21) produced varianttype of colonies recovered
from the infested soil. The weed strains multipliedin the roots
and stems of A. hosustonianum, K. brevifolia, and P.
oleracea,especially the population in P. oleracea was the
highest. The fluctuation ofpopulations of weed strains in
rhizosphere soils was large, and thepopulations were in
the range of 106-108 cfu/g dry soil five weeks
afterplanting.
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