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研究生:陳添水
研究生(外文):Chen, Tien-Shui
論文名稱:台灣鹽田植群與綠化之研究
論文名稱(外文):Vegetation and Greenery of the Salterns in Taiwan
指導教授:陳明義陳明義引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yih Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:鹽場鹽田綠化
外文關鍵詞:SalternSalt PanGreenery
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台灣原有六個鹽場,惟歷經逐步裁廢,目前僅剩布袋、北門及七股三個鹽
場,有些已自然演替為鹽生草澤或紅樹林,成為重要水鳥棲地。本研究就
廢曬鹽田生育地土壤與積水性質、水位、植群分布、季節消長與演替、適
生綠化樹種、植栽技術、綠帶規劃等加以探討,以供廢曬鹽田轉型利用及
綠帶營造之參考。鹽田積水之鹽分受海水引入、降水及蒸發等因素之影響
,每年10月至翌年4月間引入海水曬鹽,鹽分較高,電導度可高達60.9
mS/cm;5~9月為雨季,鹽分可略被雨水稀釋。鹽田土壤pH多在8以上,屬
於中鹼性至強鹼性土壤。鹽場之維管束植物共調查到32科106種。實際曬
鹽之處,鹽分偏高,僅出現13科24種鹽生植物,主要為濱水菜及鹽地鼠尾
粟,其次為鹽定及海雀稗,局部有欖李及海茄苳入侵。植群覆蓋度主要隨
水位變動與季節變化而消長,鹽定及海雀稗受水位影響尤大。植群之入侵
廢曬鹽田,先從鹽分濃度較低之土堤開始,再往兩側侵入蒸發池內。濱水
菜為演替之先驅植物,之後其他鹽生草本鹽地鼠尾粟、鹽定、海雀稗,以
及鹽生木本欖李、海茄苳等逐漸入侵,接著為蘆葦、水燭、冬青菊、田菁
、水丁香、臭根子草、白茅、白花鬼針等一般草本,之後為馬纓丹、銀合
歡等灌木與小喬木,最後由黃槿、構樹、血桐等一般喬木取代。 依植栽
試驗結果,只要生育地之水文適宜,五梨跤及欖李成活率很高,可用於廢
曬鹽田之綠化。本研究並提出廢曬鹽田植栽與綠化之建議,以及配合廢曬
鹽田劃設水鳥保護區之綠帶規劃芻議,以供經營管理之參考。
There were six salterns in Taiwan. Up to now, only three
salterns are still under operation. Abandoned salt pans have
naturally succeeded to salt marshes or mangroves which have
become important habitats for waterfowls. This investigation is
concerned with soil and water properties, water level, plant
distribution, seasonal fluctuation, greenery plants and
technique.The water salinity of salt pans was affected by
seawater input, rainfall and evaporation. From October to April
of the next year, seawater was introduced for salt production,
and electrical conductivity could reach 60.9 mScm-1. In rainy
season, the brines was somewhat diluted. The pH of salt pan
soils was above 8. The vascular plants at the salterns include
106 species belonging to 32 families. There are only 24 species
of halophytes at the salt pans under operation where soil and
water salinity are extremely high. The primary plants are
Sesuvium portulacastrum, Sporobolus virginicus, Suaeda maritima
, Paspalum vaginatum, Lumnitzera racemosa and Avicennia marina.
Plant cover was affected by water level and seasonal changes.
The cover of Suaeda maritima and Paspalum vaginatum were
particularly affected by water level.Generally, plants firstly
established at the soil banks, and then invaded the
concentrating ponds. Sesuvium portulacastrum was the pioneer
plant of succession, then followed by other halophytes such as
Sporobolus virginicus, Suaeda maritima, Paspalum vaginatum,
Lumnitzera racemosa, and Avicennia marina, and then Phragmites
communis, Typha orientalis, Pluchea indica, Sesbania cannabiana,
Ludwigia octovalvis, Bothriochloa intermedia, Imperata
cylindrica var. major and Bidens pilosa. Then nonhalophytic
shrubs Based on the results of field experiments, Lumnitzera
racemosa and Avicennia marina showed high survival rates and
were suitable for greenery at the abandoned salt pans under
proper hydrological conditions. This investigation also provides
suggestions of the greenbelt establishment at the abandoned salt
pans which converted to waterfowl sanctuary.
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