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研究生:楊小珍
研究生(外文):Yang, Shou-Jean
論文名稱:台灣稻作品種及其親本遺傳變異之DNA多型性分性分析
論文名稱(外文):The genetic diversity of rice varieties and their ancetor revealed by DNA polymorphysom
指導教授:林茂森林茂森引用關係
指導教授(外文):Maw-Sun Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:遺傳變異多型性
外文關鍵詞:genetic diversityRAPDrice
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稻米是台灣地區重要的糧食作物,其為禾本科、稻族、稻屬,主要分佈於
溫帶、熱帶及亞熱帶地區。台灣的栽培稻主要包括梗稻(Japonica)和秈
稻(Indica),前人曾經利用譜系資料,來分析台灣栽培品種間之親緣關
係,而對台灣栽培品種之基本背景,有了概略的瞭解。本實驗的目的,在
利用逢機增殖多型性DNA(random amplified polymorphic DNA , RAPD)
的方法,從DNA層次,研究台灣栽培品種與其親本間之遺傳變異情形。選
取86個稻作品種與種源,分為二群,其中53個為第一群(包括49個台灣改
良品種、4個國外品種),另外33個為第二群(包括31個地方品種、以及
取自日本之2個菜園種),利用RAPD分析方法,探討台灣栽培稻間以及其
與地方品種之遺傳變異性與親緣關係。先由測試的54條引子中,篩選出12
條可產生多型性標誌之引子,進行實驗,共產生90個不同型態之條帶(
banding pattern)(其中包括28種單型性條帶及62種多型性條帶)。估
計台灣栽培品種之遺傳變異,由條帶的型態來看,秈稻多型性比率
為43.59%,平均遺傳距離為0.154,而梗稻多型性比率為30.3%,平均遺傳
距離為0.06,顯示台灣梗稻品種間之遺傳變異較小。而由篩選出之引子分
析所產生之歸群圖顯示,台灣梗稻品種與秈稻品種之分群結果,以及台灣
栽培品種與其親本品種間之歸群結果,大致可與譜系分析結果相印證。另
外,透過RAPD分析方法可偵測出,水稻地方品種(在來種)較易產生變異
之現象,如蒐集來源不同之菜園種,其歸群分析之結果不甚相同,而農試
所保存之菜園種之歸群情況,較為偏向梗稻栽培品種,取自日本種源保存
材料中的2個菜園種,則與秈稻栽培品種之歸群較相近,為了能確知較真
實的原因,需增加更多不同來源之菜園種的樣品數,進行更進一步分析。
由以上研究可知,在稻品種間變異研究上,RAPD不僅是一種快速、簡便的
遺傳變異分析方法,亦可配合譜系分析的資料,建立品種間更深入的遺傳
背景資料,以提供未來稻作育種改良之重要參考。
Rice is a major crop in Taiwan and distributes in temperate,
tropical and subtropical regions. Taiwanese rice varieties
mainly consist of Japonica and Indica types. The genetic
relationship among rice varieties and their ancestors was
evaluated by pedigree analysis. And the study provides some
information about genetic background of rice varieties.
Therefore, the thesis objective was to investigate the genetic
relationship among rice varieties and their ancestors at
molecular level.The genetic diversity among 86 rice varieties
(including 42 Japonica cultivars, 7 Indica cultivars, 31
ancestors, 4 foreign varieties, and 2 Tsai-yuan-chon from Japan)
were evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).
Twelve of 54 primers were sufficient to generate polymorphisms
and produced 90 banding patterns. When all 12 primers were taken
into consideration, 30.3% of banding patterns were polymorphic
among Japonica varieties, and 43.59% among Indica varieties. The
averaged genetic distance between Japonica varieties was 0.06,
and 0.154 between Indica varieties. Therefore, the genetic
diversity of Japonica cultivars is smaller than that of Indica
cultivars. Clustering dendrograph based on 12 primers
distinguishs Japonica cultivars from Indica cultivars. Taiwanese
rice varieties generally showed closer affinity to their
ancestors. For example, Iwata Asahi and Tainung 67 were
clustered one group, because Iwata Asahi was one of ancestors of
Tainung 67. The data based on cluster analysis was similar to
those based on pedigree analysis. RAPD analysis was able to
detect variants in landraces. For example, Tsai-yuan-chon from
Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute was close affinity with
Japonica cultivars, and two Tsai-yuan-chon from Japan showed
close affinity to indica cultivars. Because of the lack of
samples for Tsai-yuan-chon from different sources, it is
necessary to increase the number of seed sources to recognize
the genetic background of Tsai-yuan-chon. The results suggest
the RAPD analysis in conjunction with pedigree information
provide better estimates of genetic diversity than analysis
those solely on pedigree information.
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