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研究生:邱麗娜
研究生(外文):Chiou, Lee Nor
論文名稱:砧木品種葉片氣孔數及嫁接對芒果無機養分與碳水化合物之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Rootstock Cultivars,Stomatal Densiuy and Grafting on! Mineral Nutrition and Carbohydrate in Mango(Mangigera indica L.)
指導教授:李國權, 謝慶昌
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Chuan Lee, Ching-Chang Shiesh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:芒果無機養分碳水化合物砧木嫁接
外文關鍵詞:mangomineralcarbohydraterootstockgrafting
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本實驗取台灣目前的栽培品種為砧木,以金煌芒果為接穗,除了瞭解不同
品種芒果實生苗對無機元素吸收運移之能力外,並期望能找出一個對鈣離
子吸收能力強之品種作為金煌之砧木,以提高植物體內鈣含量,進而了解
缺鈣與果實劣變發生之關係。結果顯示,施鈣時不同品種實生苗之葉片內
鈣含量由高而低依序為:本地種、台農一號、凱特、海頓、蜂蜜、金煌、
紅龍、愛文及聖心,未施鈣時則為:本地種、台農一號、蜂蜜、海頓、紅
龍、凱特、愛文、金煌及聖心;不同砧木嫁接後金煌接穗葉片內鈣含量由
高而低依序為:紅龍、台農一號、本地種、聖心、凱特、海頓、金煌及愛
文;經修剪後則為:本地種、台農一號、凱特、聖心、紅龍、海頓、金煌
及愛文;第二年田間栽培時實生苗之鈣含量由高而低依序為:台農一號、
紅龍、本地種、海頓、聖心、愛文及金煌。在葉片氮/鈣方面愛文、凱特
及金煌較其它品種之砧木為高,亦是劣變易發生之品種,因此推測果實劣
變之發生與葉片氮/鈣具相關性。最後本實驗結果建議本地種及台農一號
由於對鈣離子吸收運移之能力較其它砧木強且穩定,因此可供作金煌芒果
砧木選種及育種時之參考。本實驗以三個不同栽培地區、8個不同芒果品
種之果實及果實下方第一節葉片為材料,藉由無機元素含量之分析,期能
了解葉片與果實無機元素含量及其相關性。並經由氣孔數目之觀察,希望
了解氣孔數目與蒸散作用及鈣離子吸收間可能之關係。實驗結果顯示在不
同地區及不同品種中葉片氮含量以金煌最高,其它元素則差異不大。葉片
無機元素含量與佛州標準值相較下,鈣含量偏低,氮與標準值差異小,而
磷、鉀及鎂均在標準範圍內。果實中鈣濃度所有品種均由果梗端往果頂端
及由果皮往果肉內層遞減,另外不同果實部位,其中氮以外層果肉最低,
磷含量在果頂端高於果梗端,鉀含量以內層果肉較高,其它元素均以果皮
濃度最高。實驗結果發現芒果果實發育期間可累積較高鉀及銅,而氮、磷
、鈣、鐵、鎂、錳、硼則以葉片中所含濃度較高。在葉片與果實無機元素
含量之相關性方面發現,葉片中磷含量與果實鈣含量、鉀與鋅、鋅與鐵及
銅與錳呈顯著負相關;而葉片之鉀含量與果實之錳含量、鎂與銅、錳與錳
、葉片鋅與果實鋅、硼等呈顯著正相關;葉片與葉片相關性方面,則僅有
硼和銅二者呈極顯著的正相關;果實與果實無機元素相關方面,果實中磷
與果實氮、鎂與鉀、銅與鋅呈正相關,而硼與鐵則呈極顯著的負相關。另
外果實氮/鈣、鉀/鈣、鎂/鈣與果實生理劣變之發生可能具相當程度之相
關性,而小型果有較低的氮/鈣、鉀/鈣及鎂/鈣。不同芒果品種葉片氣孔
數及型態具顯著差異,本實驗調查18個不同品種其中以愛文、聖心及海頓
葉片氣孔數最少,以''Deshehari''、''Israel''、''Man-Moo''等品種氣孔數最
多,而葉片氣孔數與鈣離子之吸收似乎有其相關性存在。本實驗將仍具幼
年性之實生苗頂梢嫁接在具開花能力之砧木上時,此技術可使前者在第二
年即能花芽分化而開花,在嫁接成活後分別分析實生苗、嫁接成活後之高
接接穗及砧木三者葉片中碳水化合物、無機元素含量及碳/氮之變化,試
驗結果顯示:實生苗葉片之碳水化合物含量維持較穩定狀態,而高接接穗
及砧木則在3月開花期快速上升達30%,較10月調查時增加約二倍;全可溶
性糖含量初期三者差異小,但到3月開花期時則高接接穗與砧木葉片內全
可溶性糖含量大量增加;澱粉含量以實生苗較高,砧木最低,三者在10月
採樣時均有明顯下降趨勢。在無機元素含量方面,實生苗葉片中有較高的
磷、錳及銅含量,砧木則磷、銅含量較其它二者為低,其它元素並無一規
則性變化。另外,實生苗葉片碳/氮在調查初期較高接接穗及砧木為高,
但在3 月值金煌開花期時高接接穗及砧木葉片中碳/氮快速增加,分別高
達21.6及21.9,且二者碳/氮在生長過程變化趨勢頗為相似,同樣在10月
時最低,3月時大幅提高。據以上結果推測金煌芒果高接後引起實生苗接
穗開花之原因,受葉片中碳水化合物含量與碳/氮之影響可能大於無機元
素所造成之影響。
Chapter 1. Nutrient Uptake and Transport Capacities of Different
Mango RootstocksSummary The objectives of thisexperiment were
to investigate the mango cultivars'' abilities in the uptake and
transport of mineral nutrients with special emphasis on the
selection of a high Ca absorbing rootstock . The data will also
be used as a guideline for the choosing of a rootstock for Chiin
Whang which is a deficiency─prone cultivar and to clarify the
relationship between Ca deficiency and pre harvest fruit
deterioration. Results showed a significant difference in Ca
content in leaves among cultivars. Caltivars were arranged
according to the Ca concentration in leaves (from high to low)
after calcium fertilizer was applied. They were listed as Local
Varity, Tai-Known No.1, Keitt, Haden, Phon-Mee, Chiin Whang,
Hon-Long, Irwin and Sensation. The order in the control was
Local Varity, Tai-Known No.1, Phon-Mee, Haden, Hon-Long, Keitt,
Irwin, Chiin Whang and Sensation. Calcium concentration from
high to low in leaves of Chiin Whang after grafting were in the
following order: Hon-Long, Tai-Known No.1, Local Varity,
Sensation, Keitt, Haden, Chiin Whang and Irwin. After pruning
the order were:Local Varity, Tai-Know No.1, Keitt, Sensation,
Hon-Long, Haden, Chiin Whang and Irwin. The magnitude of leaves
calcium concentration of cultivars planting in field were Tai-
Known No.1, Hon-Long, Local Varity , Haden, Sensation, Irwin and
Chiin Whang.The N/Ca of Irwin, Keitt and Chiin Whang leaves was
higher than the other cultivars. Since the above mentioned
cultivars are sensitive to Ca-deficiency, the pre harvest fruit
deterioration may be associated with a high N/Ca in leaves.
Results also indicated that Local Varity and Tai-Known No.1 had
higher Ca uptake and transport capacities. Thus, It is suggested
that these cultivars could be adopted as rootstocks in the
cultivation and breeding of Chiin Whang mango.Chapter 2.
Relationship between Stomata Density, Leaf and Fruit Nutrient
ConcentrationSummary Eight mango cultivars grown in three
different locations were used in the determination of leaf and
fruit mineral nutrient concentrations and the possible relations
between them. Stomata density was recorded with a view to
elucidating the relationship between transpiration and Ca
uptake. Result indicated ''Chiin Whang'' mango had the highest N
content among cultivars in all three locations. A comparasion of
the average leaf nutrient concentration of the 8 cultivars with
that of Florida, U.S.A. revealed that Ca was rather low, a
slight variation in N but no significant differences were found
for the other nutrients. Ca decreased as fruits were measured
from proximal to the distal end, or from peel to the inner
mesocarp. In the different portion of fruit, N was the lowest at
outer mesocarp, P was the highest at distal end and K was the
highest in the inner mesocarp. High K and Cu were found
accumulated in the fruit at the fruit developmental stage. But
high N, P, Mg,Ca, Fe, Mn and B were found in leaves.In both
leaves and fruits, experiment results showed a negative
correlation between P and Ca, K and Zn, Zn and Fe, Cu and Mn.
However, K and Mn, Mg and Cu, Mn and Mn. Zn and Zn, Zn and B
exhibited a positive relationship. Boron and Cu likewise showed
unveiled a positive correlation between leaf and leaf. A
positive correlation was also observed between P and N, Mg and
K, Cu and Zn together with a negative relationship between B and
Fe. A high value of N/Ca, K/Ca and Mg/Ca could be associated
with fruit deterioration. Results indicated Deshehari, Israel
and Man-Moo had more stomata numbers than those of Irwin,
Sensation and Haden. A positive correlation was noticed between
the distribution of stomata and Ca uptake.Chapter 3. Leaf
Carbohydrate and Mineral Concentrations of seedling, Scion and
Rootstock of ''Chiin Whang'' mangoSummary An experiment was
carried out using tips of juvenile twig and were grafted on the
mature rootstock to induce flower bud differentiation. After
successful grafting and further growth, leaves of seedling,
topworking scion and rootstocks were sampled and analyzed for
carbohydrate, mineral nutrients and C to N ratio. Results
indicated that carbohydrate concentration of seedling was rather
stable while those of topworking scion and rootstock increased
rapidly to 30% in March a two-fold increase from October. No
difference was found in soluble sugar content at the early
developmental stage. Soluble sugar swiftly increased in the
topworking scion and rootstock during the flowering period in
March. Starch content was high in seedlings while that of the
rootstock was low with scion in between. A significant decline
was observed at the sampling time in October. As to element
concentrations, Seedling had a high P level as well as Mn and
Cu. Rootstock had relatively lower value of P and Cu as compared
with the seedling and scion. No definite trend was found for the
other elements. Results also indicated seedling leaves had a
higher value than scion and stock at the beginning of
investigation. Carbon to Nitrogen ratio in leaves of topworking
scion and rootstock augmented during blossom in March to 21.6
and 21.9, respectively, and had a similar trend in the changing
process, lowest in October and hit an all-time high in March.It
is concluded that the basis of inducing flower initiation in
seedling after grafting could be the effect of carbohydrate
alone as shown by the significant change in C to N ratio.
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