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研究生:杜怡萱
研究生(外文):Tu, Yi-Hsuan
論文名稱:鋼筋混凝土建築結構物之地震預期損失--以中層商業大樓為例
論文名稱(外文):Expected earthquake loss of RC structures -- Illustrated by medium-rise commercial buildings
指導教授:許茂雄許茂雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheu Maw-Shyong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築(工程)學系
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:鋼筋混凝土建築物非線性震譜分析震害量化評估地震預期損失
外文關鍵詞:Reinforced concrete buildingsNonlinear spectrum analysisQuantitative seismic damage assessmentExpected earthquake loss
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地震保險扮演著分擔風險及災後重建經濟來源之重要角色,然而在近
年 來的幾次大地震中,美國加州保險業者卻損失慘重,因此如何準
確評估地震 預期損失、訂定適當的保險費率也成為值得探討的議題
。本文建立了一套整 合震害評估與補修費用計算的精算方法論,以
補修費用作為具體的震害程度 定量方式,並進行RC結構體實例的地
震風險評估,以作為同類型結構物訂 定地震保險費率的參考。
評估地震預期損失的方式中,常見的是以理論模擬或以過去資料統計;
前者的不確定性主要來自研究者的假設,後者則有時間與地域上的限制。
由 於台灣過去地震的損失記錄尚不周全,本文採取決定論式的理論
模擬,以非 線性增量震譜分析法進行震害評估,並在分析過程中同
時精算結構體補修費 用;最後考慮多數地震之綜合貢獻,以計算年
預期損失。 本文主要的研究結果如下:
1. RC構件補修費用估算方法:破壞前以裂縫長度作為計費標準,撓曲與
剪 力裂縫分別以文獻或迴歸公式計算之,並經實例比較,誤差
約不超過10 %;破壞後則依破壞形式採取對應的補修工法,補
修單價經實際訪價而 得。
2. 震害評估實例計算結果:實例模型為中層RC商業大樓,以真實建物設
計 之;補修費用與PGA大約成正比,主要來自由撓曲造成的柱梁
補修費, 約佔70%;設計強度越弱者在同一PGA作用下所需補
修費用越多,差 異約在30%以內。
3. 地震預期損失與保險費率計算:地震損失為補修費用與重建費用之比
; 年預期損失則為年超越概率與地震損失關係曲線之積分面積
。年預期損 失的大部份來自中弱級地震,而若調整理賠PGA基準
,積分所得與保險 費率就會不同;實例計算的結果顯示,較強
震區的模型由於地震概率大, 保險費率也較高;另外,我國現行
的火險附加地震險費率由於理賠標準 不明確,無法與本文作有
效的比較。
Earthquake insurance plays an important role for risk
relief and financial support of the recovery after
disaster. However, many insurers in U.S.A. paid
unexpectedly compensation in several earthquakes lately.
Therefore, how to evaluate earthquake losses
accurately and how to set up proper insurance rates for
building structures are worthy to investigate. A method which
combines seismic damage assessment and repair cost is
developed in this paper. Repair cost is taken as a
reasonable quantitative index of seismic damage. Earthquake risk
assessment of RC structures is proposed as reference for
earthquake insurance rate of similar structures.
Theoretical simulation and statistics are mostly used methods in
evaluation of expected earthquake loss. Due to the lack of
field records of earthquake loss in Taiwan, deterministic
analysis is adopted by this paper. Nonlinear incremental
spectrum analysis is used as seismic damage assessment. Repair
costs are calculated during the analysis. The
annual expected loss is estimated as overall loss for all
possible earthquakes in an year.
The conclusions of this thesis are as follows:
1. Repair cost of RC elements: Before ultimate state, repair
costs are calculated according to the crack
length. Flexural and shear cracks are calculated
respectively from semi-empirical formula. After ultimate state,
repair costs are determined based on damage modes.
2. Seismic damage assessment: Examples are medium-rise
commercial buildings designed with actual
procedure. The calculated repair cost is almost
proportional to PGA and nearly 70% of repair cost is due to
flexural cracks. Weaker structures results in nearly
30% increase of repair cost. 3. Expected earthquake
loss and insurance rate: Earthquake loss is defined as
the ratio of the repair cost to the replacement cost. Annual
expected loss(AEL) is calculated as the
integration over annual exceedance
probabilities and relative earthquake loss. Most of AEL is
accumulated from small and medium earthquakes.
However, the integrating range and
insurance rates can be adjusted by changing the down pay
coverage. The calculated insurance rates are
higher in high-risk regions due to earthquake
frequency.
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