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研究生:翁閎政
研究生(外文):WENG, HUNG CHENG
論文名稱:機車排氣之揮發性有機物特徵及光化反應性研究
論文名稱(外文):The VOCs character and photochemical reactivity of the exhaust of motorcycles
指導教授:蔡俊鴻蔡俊鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai Jiun-Horng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:動力計揮發性有機物
外文關鍵詞:dynamometerVOCs
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本研究乃參考國內行車型態模式研究結果,以動力計模擬不同行車型態(
怠速、加速、等速、減速),藉由採樣袋採集機車於各種行車型態下之排
放尾氣,定性定量解析各項有機污染物之特徵組成及濃度。實驗設計考量
機動車輛引擎型式(二行程、四行程)、車齡(以不同行里程數為代表)對排
放VOCs濃度及特徵組成之影響。模擬實驗結果除可推算各項 VOCs排放係
數外,並藉由最大反應性(MIR)指標轉化為光化反應強度,評估機車尾
氣排放VOCs所致臭氧形成潛勢。研究結果顯示,新車與使用中機車之引擎
廢氣空氣污染物濃度與差異甚大。計算其一氧化碳、總碳氫化合物及氮氧
化物之排放係數,二、四行程新車分別為2.63、3.28、0.03 g/km及6.68
、1.33、0.52 g/km;二、四行程使用中機車分別為29. 31、18.18、0.05
g/km及28.55、2.48、0.33 g/km。除 四行程機車之NOx濃度與排放係數外
,二行程使用中機車引擎排氣皆有較高的空氣污染物濃度與排放係數。比
較不同行車型態下引擎排氣濃度差異,各型機車以怠速、等速50km及減速
行駛狀態下有較高排放濃度,而以加速及等速30km行駛狀態濃度最低,四
行程機車在怠速與減速狀態下之引擎排氣總VOCs濃度具較大差異,使用中
機車濃度分別為新車濃度的17.7倍及16.3倍。而排放係數會因排氣量及行
駛里程差異而有差異,各型機車仍以減速有較高之排放係數。對於機車排
氣特徵成份,各型機車皆以甲苯及異戊烷有最高排放係數。比較車輛參數
對機車排氣影響。燃油方面,使用高級汽油之機車有較高之排放濃度與排
放係數;而里程數與觸媒之排放差異在新舊車之間差異頗為明顯,而舊車
間比較則因車輛其它因素影響而使參數影響不顯著。以MIR指標探討機車
排氣致光化反應之影響,發現有較高排放濃度之機車亦有較高致臭氧產生
之趨勢。
The purpose of this study was to explore components and
concentrations of motorcycle emissions in Taiwan. The driving
patterns of motorcycles in Taiwan were simulated in a
dynamometer. Samples of emissions were taken under idling,
acceleration, constant speed, and braking conditions. Total
hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides were
analyzed with an automated instruments. Fifty-one volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed with gas chromatography.
The effects of motor type (2 strokes or 4 strokes) and age on
motorcycle VOC emission profile were assessed. Emission factors
(EFs) were determined from emission concentrations; and ozone
production potentials of the various VOCs were also obtained
using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors. The
results showed that the emission concentrations of in-use
motorcycles were much different from the newly produced
motorcycles. The EFs of two- and four- stroke new motorcycles
were 2.63, 3.28, 0.03 g/km and 6.68, 1.33, 0.52 g/km, for CO,
THC, and NOx, respectively. For in-used motorcycles, the EFs of
two- and four- strokes were 29.31, 18.18, 0.05 g/km, and 28.55,
2.48, and 0.33 g/km, for CO, THC, and NOx, respectively. Except
for the NOx concentrations and EFs of four-stroke motorcycles,
the concentrations and EFs of all other pollutants of in-used
motorcycles were all higher than the new ones. Among
different driving patterns, VOC concentrations were higher under
idling, constant speed at 50km/hr, and braking conditions than
under acceleration and constant speed at 30 km/hr conditions.
For four-stroke motorcycles, VOC concentrations of in-used
motorcycles were 17.1 times and 16.3 times of those of new
motorcycles for idling and braking conditions, respectively;
they were substantially different. The effects of total
mileage, catalyst, and gasoline on motorcycle VOC emission
profiles were also assessed. It showed that motorcycles using
leaded gasoline had higher VOC concentrations and EFs. Moreover,
comparing the concentrations and EFs of new and in-used
motorcycles, the results showed that total mileage and catalyst
usage.did play a role; however, other factors might also affect
the results. The mean ozone production potentials of two-
and four- stroke new motorcycles were about 2.86g/km and 0.73 g/
km, respectively, and those for two- and four- stroke in-used
motorcycles were approximately 3.49 g/km and 2.94 g/km,
respectively. It was obvious that the contribution of ozone
production from 2-stoke motorcycles was higher than four-stroke
ones. The mean ozone production potentials of new motorcycles
was 1.80 g/km, while that of in-used ones was about 3.22 g/km.
Thus, in-used motorcycles had higher potentials for ozone
production.
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