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研究生:姜信欽
研究生(外文):JIANG, HSIN-CHIN
論文名稱:以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜分析與設計及其在影像邊緣萃取和運動物體偵測的應用
論文名稱(外文):THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BJT-BASED SILICON RETINAS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS ON IMAGE EDGE EXTRACTION AND MOVING OBJECT DETECTION
指導教授:吳重雨
指導教授(外文):Wu Chung-Yu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電子工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:雙載子接面電晶體矽仿視網膜影像邊緣萃取運動物體偵測
外文關鍵詞:BJTSilicon RetinaImage Edge ExtractionMoving Object Detection
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本論文的主旨在於闡述以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜的分析與
設計及其在影像邊緣萃取和運動物體偵測的應用。論文中包含下列四個主
要部分:(1) 以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜的影像平整函數的
特性描述及分析;(2) 具有影像平整化可調整的新型以雙載子接面電晶體
為基礎之矽仿視網膜的設計製作;(3) 結合以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之
矽仿視網膜及暫態式零點跨越感測器的新型運動偵測器的設計製作;(4)
結合以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜及臨界感測器的新型影像邊
緣萃取器的設計製作。首先,本論文中針對以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之
矽仿視網膜的平整函數在考慮共基極雙載子接面電晶體陣列的基極電阻偏
壓效應下發展出單點及多點輸入的分析式模型。透過此模型,矽仿視網膜
中雙載子接面電晶體平整網路的影像平整化的動作原理可以清楚地被瞭解
。並且,影響影像平整函數的參數及設計規範也可由此模型獲得。由所推
導出的公式中可看出以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜隨著影像的
對比及背景不同,會有適應式的影像平整化能力。為了驗證此模型的正確
性,我們以0.6um互補式金氧半技術設計及製作了實驗晶片。量測及模擬
結果皆指出此模型的正確性,並證實此矽仿視網膜的性能優點。因此,此
分析式模型可以有效率地模擬無法以SPICE模擬的大尺寸矽仿視網膜的特
性。其次,本論文中提出並分析一具有簡單緊密結構的改良型以雙載子接
面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜。在此新結構中,用來模仿視網膜中水平單
元(horizontal cells)的雙載子接面電晶體平整網路是以加強型N通道金
氧半場效電晶體置於互補式金氧半技術的寄生雙載子接面電晶體的基極間
而構成的。在此,N通道金氧半場效電晶體可工作於次臨界區或強反轉區
,以提供大範圍的通道電阻值,因此,網路平整化的特性可以大範圍的調
整。我們以0.5um互補式金氧半技術設計及製作了具有64*64像素的實驗晶
片,並透過量測驗證其平整區域的可調性及其可用來偵測運動物體的動態
特性。此改良結構很適合於做超大型積體化及結合於互補式金氧半智慧型
感測器中。再者,根據由生物模型所啟發的影像邊緣臨界感測演算法,本
論文中提出並製作一結合以雙載子接面電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜及臨界
感測器的新型影像邊緣萃取器。此萃取器的每一像素都含有一個矽仿視網
膜單元,及其所屬的邊緣感測器,且影像的攫取及邊緣影像的產生皆是以
平行化進行。此外,不須增加介面電路下,每一像素內還可加入DRAM儲存
單元,以儲存所萃取出的邊緣影像做為後續處理系統的輸入資料。我們
以0.25um DRAM技術設計了具有128*128像素的實驗晶片,其每一像素的面
積為30*30mm^2,並透過模擬驗證其正確的動作。此顆實驗晶片的功率消
耗在3.3V下約為150mW。最後,本論文中提出並製作一結合以雙載子接面
電晶體為基礎之矽仿視網膜及暫態式零點跨越感測器的新型運動偵測器。
此偵測器採用一修正型token-based delay-and-correlate運算演算法來
偵測特定的運動速度及方向,此外,為了達成速度及方向的高度選擇性,
關連訊號是採用二元化脈波訊號。此偵測器的基本偵測單元的電路架構非
常緊密,含有一個矽仿視網膜單元、一個暫態式零點跨越感測器、二個延
遲路徑、及四個關連器。我們以0.6um互補式金氧半技術設計及製作了具
有32*32基本偵測單元的實驗晶片,每個基本偵測單元的面積為100*100
um^2。而此新型運動偵測器的功能都一一經由量測驗證,根據量測結果顯
示,此實驗晶片的偵測速度範圍可達56mm/sec~5m/sec,偵測方向範圍為0
degree ~ 360 degree,功率消耗在5V下小於20mW。經由模擬及實驗證實
,本論文中所發展出的電路架構對於設計模擬人類的視覺系統的單一晶片
系統具有極大的用處。未來將朝這個領域繼續研究。
In this thesis the BJT-based silicon retinas and their
applications onimage edge extraction and moving object detection
are designed and analyzed.The main parts of this thesis include:
(1) the characterization and analysis ofimage smoothing
functions in the BJT-based silicon retina; (2) theimplementation
of the new BJT-based silicon retina using tunable imagesmoothing
capability; (3) the implementation of the new image edge
extractor using BJT-based silicon retina and thresholding
detector; (4) the design of thenew motion sensor with BJT-based
silicon retina and temporal zero-crossing detector.Firstly, the
analytical models of the smoothing function of the BJT-based
silicon retina under both single-point and multiple-point
stimuli havebeen developed by considering the base resistance
bias effect of the common-base BJT array. Through the
analytical models, the operatingprinciple of the image smoothing
performed by the BJT smoothing network of the BJT-based silicon
retina can be well understood. Moreover, theparameters which
affect the image smoothing characteristics of the BJT-
basedsilicon retina can be characterized by the developed models
and suitabledesign guidelines can be obtained. It may be seen
from the derived equations that the smoothing characteristics
depend upon the image contrast andbackground, which makes the
BJT-based silicon retina adaptive in imagesmoothing.
Experimental chip has been designed and fabricated by 0.6 um
CMOS technology. Both measurement results and SPICE simulation
results have substantiated the developed analytical model and
verified the performance advantages of the BJT-based silicon
retina. Thus the model can be used to efficiently simulate
large-size BJT-based silicon retina which cannot be simulated in
SPICE.Secondly, an improved BJT-based silicon retina with simple
and compact structure is proposed and analyzed. In the proposed
structure, the BJT smoothing network which models the layer of
horizontal cells in the vertebrate retina is implemented by
placing enhancement n-channel MOSFETs among the bases of
parasitic BJTs existing in CMOS process toform an unique and
compact structure. The nMOSFET can be operated in subthreshold
region or strong-inversion region to provide a wide-range
tunable channel resistance controlled by the common gate bias.
Thus the smoothing characteristics can be tuned in a wide range.
Moreover, an extra emitter isincorporated with each BJT at the
pixel to act as the row switch. This reducesthe cell area of
the silicon retina and increases the resolution. Using the
proposed new structure, an experimental 64*64 BJT-based silicon
retina chip has been fabricated by using 0.5um CMOS technology.
The measurement results on the tunability of the smooth area in
the smoothing network as well asthe dynamic characteristics of
the proposed silicon retina in detecting moving objects have
been presented. It is believed that theimproved structure is
verysuitable for the VLSI implementation of the retina and its
application systemsCMOS smart sensors.Thirdly, a compact and
real-time 2-D edge sensor integrated with the embedded DRAM is
proposed and analyzed. In the proposed edge sensor, the
computation algorithm is based upon the algorithm inspired by
the biologicalmodel of detecting spatial edges by thresholding
the outputs of the siliconretina. Each basic detection cell in
the sensor has a compact architecture which consists of one BJT-
based silicon retina cell, one thresholding edge detector, and a
DRAM storage cell. The significant features of the edge sensor
are that the image acquisition and edge image generation can be
performed in a parallel manner, and the DRAM storage cell can be
incorporated into eachcell without additional interface circuits
to store the resultant edge image forfurther processing by
following processing system, such as neural network.Using the
proposed architecture, an experimental 128*128 edge sensor
chipwith a cell size of 30*30 um2 has been designed by using
0.25 um DRAM technology. The correct operations of the designed
sensor chip have been verified through simulations. The
complete sensor consumes about 150 mW at 3.3V.Finally, a 2-D
velocity- and direction-selective visual motion sensorwith BJT-
based silicon retina and temporal zero-crossing detector is
proposed and implemented. In the proposed sensor, the modified
token-based delay-and-correlate computational algorithm is
adopted to detect the specified speed and direction of moving
object images. Moreover, binary pulsed signals areused as
correlative signals to increase the velocity and direction
selectivities. Each basic detection cell in the sensor has a
compact architecture which consists of one BJT-based silicon
retina cell, one current-input edge extractor, two delay paths,
and four correlators.Using the proposed architecture, an
experimental 32*32 visual motion sensor chip with a cell size of
100*100 mm2 has been designed and fabricatedby using 0.6 mm CMOS
technology. The correct operations of the fabricatedsensor chip
have been verified through measurements. The measured rangesof
selectively detected on-chip velocity and direction in the
fabricated sensor chip are 56mm/sec~5m/sec (1120pixel/sec~105
pixel/sec) and 0 degree ~360 degree, respectively. The complete
sensor consumes 20mW at 5V.From the above results, it is
believed that the proposed BJT-basedsilicon retina and its
application architectures on edge extraction and motiondetection
have a great potential in system-on-a-chip design of machine
visionsystems which mimic human vision to achieve various
efficient imageprocessing. Further researches in this field
will be conducted in the future.
COVER
ABSTRACT (CHINESE)
ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CONTENTS
TABLE CAPTIONS
FIGURE CAPTIONS
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 THE VERTEBRATE RETINA
1.3 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR THE RETINA
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THIS THESIS
CHAPTER 2 THE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SMOOTHING FUNCTIONS IN THE BJT-BASED SILICON RETINA
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 ANALYTICAL MODELS
2.3 SIMULATION RESULTS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
2.4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
2.5 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 3 AN IMPROVED BJT-BASED SILICON RETINA WITH TUNABLE IMAGE SMOOTHING CAPABILITY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 ANALYSES OF THE PROPOSED BJT-BASED SILICON RETINA
3.3 THE 2-D ARCHITECTURE OF SILICON RETINA
3.4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
3.5 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 4 A 2-D EDGE SENSOR WITH THE BJT-BASED SILICON RETINA AND THRESHOLDING DETECTOR
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 CIRCUIT DESIGN
4.3 SIMULATION RESULTS
4.4 DISCUSSION
4.5 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 5 A 2-D VELOCITY-AND DIRECTION-SELECTIVE SENSOR WITH BJT-BASED SILICON RETINA AND TEMPORAL ZERO-CROSSING DETECTOR
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 MOTION COMPUTATION ALGORITHM
5.3 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
5.4 MEASUREMENT RESULTS
5.5 THE IMPLEMENTATIONS OF ELEMENTARY FLOW COMPONENTS SELECTIVE SENSING
5.6 SUMMARY
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS
6.1 MAIN RESULTS OF THIS THESIS
6.2 FUTURE WORKS
REFERENCES
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