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研究生:張雅萍
研究生(外文):Chang Ya-Ping
論文名稱:台北市酸沈降特性分析(1981-1997年)
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Acid Precipitation in the Taipei City(1981-1997)
指導教授:夏禹九夏禹九引用關係金恆鑣金恆鑣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yue-Joe HsiaHen-Biau King
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:自然資源管理研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:酸沈降酸雨乾沈降濕沈降混沈降
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本研究係以台北市植物園過去十七年來所收集1116場降雨的雨水資料為分析對象,進行離子的基本統計量、各離子之季節變化、每年化學物質的沈降通量、離子之間的相關性、各離子之貢獻率等分析。結果顯示,雨水的pH值範圍介於3.15-7.66之間,利用體積權重法求得的pH平均值為4.91,其中有852場降雨的pH<5.65,也就是植物園附近的雨水有78%酸化的現象。月平均的pH值則以七月最低,十月時為最高,整體而言1981年到1997年pH值有上升的趨勢。季節性差異以夏、冬兩季最為明顯,在夏季時pH值及各項離子濃度較低,冬季時較高。pH值為雨水中各種離子的綜合效應,無法以單一離子濃度變化關係加以解釋。每年沈降通量有上升趨勢者為NH4+、NO3-、F-,其中F-的出現和上升值得注意。雨中陰離子依次是以SO42-、Cl-及NO3-為主,陽離子則依次以Ca2+、NH4+、Na+為主,雨水中主要中和物質為Ca2+、NH4+、Mg2+。NO3-/ SO42-的當量比值與美國東北部與歐洲地區相當。
Rainfall samples collected at the Taipei Botanical Garden from 1981 to 1997 were analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, and major ions. Basic statistics, seasonal patterns, deposition flux of the chemicals, and correlation among ions were examined to provide a baseline data for Taipei. Average of volume-weighted pH value of the rainfall was 4.91 and ranged from 3.15 to 7.66. Among the total 1089 rainfall events, 78% of them had pH value below 5.65. Monthly averages of the pH value were highest in October and lowest in July. In general, the pH values had an increased trend over the past 17 years in Taipei. The seasonal difference of pH values between summer and winter was significant. Both the pH value and ion concentrations were lower in summer and higher in winter. Annual total deposition of ammonium gradually increased from 10.2 kg/ha/y in 1981 to 45.7 kg/ha/y in 1997. Nitrate was also gradually increased from 3.5 kg/ha/y to 12.9 kg/ha/y over these years. The most contribution anions were sulfate, chloride and nitrate. For the cations, calcium, ammonium and sodium were the most contribution ones. Major neutralization ions in the precipitation were calcium, ammonium and magnesium. The equivalent ratio of NO3-/SO42- was comparable with the Northeast of United States and Europe region.
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