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研究生:成琪
論文名稱:蘭嶼紅梗芋中草酸結晶之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Taro from Orchid Island
指導教授:黃卓治黃卓治引用關係郭新財
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品技術研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:蘭嶼紅梗芋草酸鈣
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  芋頭是熱帶性可食用作物,球莖含有刺激因子。在早期的研究中指出,某些化學性複合物與刺激性有關,這些化合物是生物鹼、配醣體、皂甘素等。在最近的研究中則顯示,刺激性與來自異形細胞中釋放出的草酸鈣針形結晶有關。
  利用光學顯微鏡、掃描式電子顯微鏡、能譜儀觀察芋頭中草酸鈣結晶的特性,結果顯示紅梗芋中有四種草酸鈣結晶形態,分別是針形、圖形、砂形及角柱形。含針形結晶之異形細胞,典型的長度是75~145μm,直徑是20~50μm;含圓形結晶之異形細胞長度是20~50μm,直徑為20~50μm。能譜儀分析顯示結晶中主要的陽離子是鈣。
  計算每單位面積芋頭球莖中異形細胞之數目與密度,結果顯示紅梗水芋中,含針狀結晶之異形細胞在數目與密度上有最高量,在旱芋中則最少。在常壓蒸煮前、後,對紅梗芋頭中結晶異形細胞的影響,只有結晶構形上的改變及異形細胞壁與膜的崩解。加工處理方面,高壓蒸煮可強化辛辣性的表現,而酸化處理則可減少辛辣性。
  Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott), a tropical edible crop, contains an irritant factor in corm. In early studies, several chemical compounds including alkaloids, glucosides, sapotoxins were implicated as causative agents of the irritation. Recently, the studies by Perera indicated that the irritant is associated with needles of calcium oxalate which are released from special cells idioblasts.
  Calcium oxalate crystals in taros were characterized by Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyzer on SEM. Results showed that four types of crystals were found in red stem taro tissue, raphides, druses, sands and prisms. The size of raphide-containing idioblasts was found to be typically 75~145μm long and 20~50μm in diameter, whereas druses-containing idioblasts were 20~50μm and 20~50μm respectively. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis revealed that calcium was the major cation in the crystals.
  In quantifing the number and density of idioblasts per unit area in taro corms, number and density of raphide-containing idioblasts at the red stem taro on the paddy land were highest and taro on the dry land the least. Comparison of the crystal idioblasts from red stem taro corms before and after cooking revealed that the morphological change associated with the treatment was the loss of the cell wall and membrane structure. High pressure cooking increased the acridity, however, extraction with acetic acid could reduce the acridity significantly.
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