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研究生:洪銘正
研究生(外文):Hung,Ming-Cheng
論文名稱:動物屍體焚化爐排放廢氣中重金屬特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Metallic Characteristics of Emissions from the Livestock Waste Incinerators
指導教授:黃文瑛黃文瑛引用關係陳瑞仁陳瑞仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang,Wen-IngChen,Shui-Jen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程技術研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:重金屬焚化爐排放率
外文關鍵詞:Heavy MetalIncineratorEmission Rate
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研究擬針對屏東縣境內A、B、C三座動物屍體焚化爐中重金屬之排放特性做一研究,以瞭解重金屬在焚化爐中之分佈情形及其它影響排放之各種參數。並且進一步瞭解其排放微粒之性質及元素組成,以作為未來受體追蹤污染源之重要依據。煙道廢氣粒狀物及重金屬樣本之採集以一套等速抽引採樣系統為之,樣本以高壓分解消化法前處理後,利用ICP-AES分析重金屬之含量。為了進一步瞭解微粒排放之性質,本研究並利用SEM-EDX來分析此排放微粒之外貌特徵及元素組成。A焚化爐使用之輔助燃料為甲烷* TB、C焚化爐為柴油。A焚化爐之粒狀矽@度為213 mg/Nm3,B焚化爐中粒狀物濃度為118 mg/Nm3,尚符合法規所規定,在C焚化爐中,粒狀物濃度28.3 mg/Nm3。A焚化爐之粒狀物排放率平均為23.7 g/min,B焚化爐排放率為9.85 g/min,粒狀物排放率最小的是C焚化爐,平均1.36 g/min。在重金屬排放濃度中,比較空燒時之濃度,可得知A爐中之重金屬排放大部份都是由燃燒動物屍體所引起,而C焚化爐以柴油為助燃燃料,其中7
0%以上之 Ni元素是由柴油燃燒所貢獻。而焚燒之廢棄物為動物屍體之焚化爐,可發現到其排放之特徵元素為Cu元素。如A、B焚化爐,其Cu含量平均分別有1.08 mg/g、5.03 mg/g,C焚化爐所燃燒 之廢棄物主要為醫療之廢棄物,其Cu含量則只有0.05 mg/g,明顯低於其他焚化爐。A焚化爐中,在污染元素方面,排放率較高的有Cr、Ni、Pb、Zn。B焚化爐是排放率最高的焚化爐,推究其原因,可能是由於重金屬含量高及排氣量大所導致的。由於C焚化爐重金屬含量過高的關係,而導致爐內排放率偏高。在A爐底灰中,污染元素以Zn含量最高,平均可達1.26mg/g。B爐中重金屬含量較高者有Pb及Zn,平均分別為2.85mg/g及7.13mg/g。而C爐中底灰含量較高的有Pb及Zn,分別為2.23及8.12mg/g。在A爐中,飛灰中分佈較高者為高揮發性金屬如Cd及Pb,分別佔了82.17﹪及58.23﹪,而他金屬大多分佈於底灰之中。在B爐中,飛灰所佔比例較高者有Cd、Pb、Zn,分別佔了71.01﹪、69.52﹪及55.68﹪,其餘如Cu、Fe、Mn揮發性較低者絕大部份均存在於底灰之中。C爐中,Cd、Cr、Ni及Pb在飛灰中佔了大部分,Cd更高達99.97﹪。在微粒外觀方面,A焚化爐之微粒粒徑大多分佈在10~15(m之間,微粒之投影形狀呈現不規則,而偏向於長方形的形狀,表面破碎
、粗糙。而B焚化爐中之微粒,則粒徑分佈變小,分佈於5~10(m之間,形狀略成橢圓形。在C焚化爐中,其粒徑明顯偏小,分佈於5~10(um之間)A其形狀也略成橢圓。比較三座焚化爐之元素組成發現到,由於A焚化爐燃燒之廢棄物為動物屍體,故所觀察到之元素組成較特殊的有Ca、K、Na、Cu...等,這些是屬於生物組成所必需的元素。C焚化爐是燃燒醫療廢棄物,並且以柴油為助燃燃料,所以在污染元素之重金屬所佔比例較高,如Pb、Fe、Al、Zn...等。而在B焚化爐中觀察到之微粒,則兼具兩者之性質。

The objectives of this research are to investigate the emission metallic chara cteristics of three animal corpse incinerators in Pingtung County and to understand the metallic distribution in the incinerators and the parameters that in
fluenced the metal emission. The stack flue-gas samples(part偞ate and heavy metals) were collected by an isokinetic sampling system. Heavy metal samples were digested by an autoclave digestor and w愉e analyzed primarily by an inductively coupled plasma emission sepectrometry CP-AES). The concentration and particle-bound composition of heavy metals were determinded and evaluated. The shapes and components of sampled particles were also studied by a SEM-EDX.
The average particulate concentration in the stack flue-gas was 213、118 and 28.3 μg/Nm3 for incinerators A、B and C. Metallic emission for incinerator A was mainly caused by the incineration of animal corpse. For incinerator C ,over 70﹪of Ni was contributed by the combustion of dissel oil. The Cu compositi on in partulate averaged 1.08mg/g、5.03mg/g for incinerators A and B, respectively. For C incinerator, the Cu composition in particular was 0.05 mg/g which was much lower than those for incinerators A and B. In the bottom ash of incin
erator A, Zn was the highest composition(1.26 mg/g) compared to other elements. For incincerator B, Pb and Zn (2.85mg/g and 7.13mg/g) were higher than other toxic elements. In incinerator C, Pb and Zn (2.23mg/g and 8.12mg/g) were higher than other toxic elmenets in the bottom ash. The high volatile elemen
ts (Cd and Pb) were mainly in the particulate of stack flue-gas(82.17﹪and 58.23﹪) and the other elements were mainly in the bottom ash for incinerator A.
For incinerator B, Cd、Pb and Zn (71.01﹪、69.52﹪ and 5.68﹪) were mainly in the particulate of stack flue-gas while the low volatile elements (Cu、Fe and Mn) were primarily in the bottom ash. For incinerator C, Cd、Cr、Ni and Pb were mainly in the particulate of stack flue-gas. From the SEM-EDX analysis, the
particle sizes of iinerator A ranged from 10 to 15μm with irregular rectangular shape and fragile rough surface. Particle sizes of incinerators B and C ranged from 5 to 10 μm with elliptic shape and rough surface. The elements of C a、K、Na and Cu in A incinerator were existed in the animal corpse. Incinerator C was used to incinerate the medical waste utilizing the diesel oil as auxiliary fuel. The particle characteristics of incinerator B was similar to those
of incinerators A and C.

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