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研究生:嚴立模
研究生(外文):Yen, Lip-mo
論文名稱:台灣嘉義新港舞鳳軒北管官話的音韻
論文名稱(外文):The Pakkoan Mandarin of Bu-hong-hian in Sinkang, Chiai, Taiwan: a phonological study.
指導教授:楊秀芳楊秀芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang Hsiu-fang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:中國文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:3
中文關鍵詞:北管官話西南官話
外文關鍵詞:PakkoanMandarinSouthern-west Mandarin
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「北管」一詞相對於「南管」而言,泛指1937年中日戰爭以前自中國
傳入台灣,原屬於北方的音樂聲腔或戲曲劇種。所謂「北方」,在台灣人
的觀念中,可能並非中國傳統上以長江為界的南、北,而是指福建(尤其
是閩南)、廣東以外的地區。或許由於一般台灣人無法分辨這些不同的聲
腔或劇種,而籠統稱之為「北管」。 北管
使用的語言,分為「官話」及「白話」兩種。官話指的是以北管來源地為
基礎的語言,白話指本地語言,也就是台灣的閩南語。在北管戲曲中,就
使用本地語言的情形,目前存在三種類型:1.完全不使用本地語言;2.僅
丑腳的口白使用本地語言,其他使用來源地語言;3.口白完全使用本地語
言,唱曲則保持來源地語言。這三種類型可視為北管語言本地化的三個歷
史階段。本文利用社會語言學中雙言 (diglossia) 的觀念,認為官話及
白話分別是高級語體 (high variety) 及低級語體 (low variety)。北管
語言的本地化,就是低級語體逐漸取代了高級語體。北管官話僅用於戲臺
上,沒有實際交際溝通的功能。使用北管官話並不能得到實際的社會利益
,而只是心理上的優越感,當國語成為社會上真正的高級語體,北管官話
便被認為是「不標準」的國語,因而聽懂的考慮凌駕了使用北管官話所獲
得的優越感。
本論文以嘉義新港舞鳳軒為對象,對北管所使用的官話,作初步的描寫及
討論。北管官話的聲母系統和台灣的閩南語完全一致;韻母系統則非常簡
單,只有25個韻母;在共時的層面,聲調可說失去了辨義的功能。韻母系
統簡化與聲調失去辨義功能的原因,是北管官話沒有交際的功能,而且沒
有正規有系統的教育。 透過北管
官話與中古音的比較,本論文主要的結論,是由音韻的條件,肯定北管官
話是屬於官話的一支;並進一步指出其為西南官話。主要條件有三:1.中
古濁聲母清化後,在北管官話中平聲或送氣或不送氣,而以送氣較多,仄
聲則不送氣;北管官話平聲不送氣是閩南語的影響,平聲送氣、仄聲不送
氣符合官話的形態。2.北管官話入聲韻尾消失,符合官話的條件。3.北管
官話雖已不用聲調作辨義的徵性,但仍保持聲調的外貌,大致可以看出陰
平、陽平、上聲、去聲四個調類,中古的入聲在北管官話中大致歸入陽平
。西南官話最重要的特點,正是入歸陽平。

"Pakkoan" (Northern Music), in contrast with "Lamkoan"
(Southern Music), generally means the school of singing or
opera genre that came from the north and was introduced into
Taiwan from China berofe the Sino-Japanese War beginn-ing in
1937. The idea of "the north", in the view of Taiwanese, can
notbe in accordance with the Chinese traditional idea of north
and south dividedby the Yangtze, but means areas excluding Fu-
jian (especially the southernFu-jian) and Guang-dung. It's
probably that Taiwanese, in general, can notdistinguish the
different schools of singing and opera genres. and vaguely
callthem "Pak- koan".
The language used in Pakkoan can be divided into "koann-oe"
(Mandarin) and"peh-oe" (vernacular). Koann-oe means the language
based on that of the sourceplace of Pakkoan, and peh-oe means
local language, that is the Southern Min inTaiwan. At present,
as to the using of local language in Pakkoan opera, there are
three types : 1) not using local language at all; 2) using local
language only in the dialogue of the role of comedian, and using
source place language in other situations; 3) using local
language in the dialogue throughout, and maintaining the source
place language in the song. The three types can
beregarded as three historical stages of localization of the
language used in Pakkoan. Appropriating the conception of
diglossia in social linguistics, the paper asserts that koann-oe
is high variety and peh-oe low variety. The local-ization of the
language used in Pakkoan is no less than the replacementof
highvariety by low variety. Pakkoan koann-oe is only used on
stage, and does not have the function of practical
communication. It can not get practicalsocial advantage but
only have the psychological superiority to use Pakkoan koann-oe.
When standard Mandarin became the real high variety in society,
Pakkoan koann- oe was regarded as "nonstandard" Mandarin, so the
considerationof understand- ing surpassed the superiority got by
using Pakkoan koann-oe. Taking Bu-hong-
hian, a Northern Music club in Sinkang, Chiai, for
researchobject, this paper makes primary description and
discussion about koann-oe used in Pakkoan. The initial system
of Pakkoan koann-oe accords withthat of Southern Min
completely, and the final system is so simple as to have only 25
finals; in the aspect of synchronism, the tone has last
distinctive function. The reason of the simplification of final
system and the lost of distinctive function of tone is that
Pakkoan koann-oe has neither intercourse function norformal
systematical education.
Through the comparison between pronunciation of Pakkoan koann-oe
and that of Middle Chinese, this paper, by way of consideration
of phonological condi- tions, makes a main conclusion of making
sure that Pakkoan koann-oe is abranchof Mandarin, and indicating
further that it's Southern-west Mandarin.There arethree main
conditions: 1) voiced initials in Middle Chinese havebecome
voice- less in Pakkoan Mandarin. They are aspirated or
unaspirated whenin even tone, and aspirated sounds are more than
the other. When in obliquetone, they are unaspirated. The
phenomenon of unaspiration when articulating even tone in
Pakkoan Mandarin is affected by Southern Min. It corresponds
withthe type of Mandarin that articulating even tone with
aspiration and oblique tone unaspi- ration. 2) In Pakkoan
Mandarin, syllabic endings of abrupt tone havelost,
corresponding with the condition of Mandarin. 3) Pakkkoan
Mandarin has aband- oned taking tone as distinctive feature, but
still remains the appearanceof tone. The four tones of upper
even, lower even, rising, falling can beroughly recognized in
Pakkoan Mandarin, and the abrupt tone in Middle Chinese belongs
to lower even tone in large. It is the most important character
of Southern- west Mandarin that the abrupt tone is incorporated
into lower eventone.

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