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研究生:吳珮琪
研究生(外文):Wu, Pey-Chyi
論文名稱:兩種有機肥料對生長在石灰質土壤與紅壤中之台茶12號與青心烏龍的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of two organic fertilizers on the growth of TTES No. 12 and Chin-shin Oolong tea plants in acid red and calcareous soils
指導教授:鍾仁賜鍾仁賜引用關係---
指導教授(外文):Chung Ren-Shin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:農業化學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業化學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:石灰質土壤紅壤台茶12號青心烏龍豬糞堆肥豌豆稻殼堆肥
外文關鍵詞:calcareous soilacid red soilTTES No. 12Chin-shin Oolonghog dung manurepea-rice hull compost
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隨著國人生活水準的提高,茶葉的消耗量也逐年上升,茶樹成了國內重要的經濟作
物之一,而有機農業的興起與健康意識的抬頭,使得茶樹以有機方式耕作將成為未來消費
者的期待。在有機耕作中,主要採用有機肥料替代化肥,以達到環保及促進生態平衡的目
的,然而目前不同種類的堆肥對茶樹的影響所知不多。因此,本研究主要施用豌豆稻殼堆
肥和豬糞堆肥,來瞭解台茶12號和青心烏龍在石灰質土和紅壤間的生長狀況。此外,也進
行室內孵育試驗,研究此二種有機質肥料在土壤中分解與養分釋放的過程。茶樹實驗採用
兩種有機質肥料,兩種土壤,兩種茶樹品種,以化學肥料為對照組,共十二種處理。每處
理六重複,採逢機完全區集排列設計。植物體與土壤在茶樹栽植九個月後採收。植物體分
根、莖和葉,測定氮組成與磷、鉀、鈣、鎂、鐵、鋁和錳元素濃度。土樣測定pH、飽和水
電導度、硝酸態氮、銨態氮和有效磷。孵育試驗為豌豆稻殼堆肥與豬糞堆肥5 %與10%的重
量比與紅壤和石灰質土壤混合,在兩種水分含量下進行,共十六處理,每處理三重複。每
十天測定pH、飽和水電導度、硝酸態氮和銨態氮的變化情況。 茶樹之12種處理中,以
栽植在紅壤中施用豬糞堆肥的台茶12號產量最高。一般在紅壤中生長的茶樹較好,台茶12
號又比青心烏龍佳。在總氮吸收量方面,也以紅壤中施豬糞堆肥的台茶12號最高,總氮濃
度則是紅壤處理者大於石灰質土壤者。兩種茶樹的硝酸態氮濃度都極低而銨態氮濃度也不
高,在紅壤處理中以葉部略多,石灰質土壤者則是根部的濃度較高。不溶性氮佔了總氮中
相當大的比例,紅壤中處理者仍是比石灰質土壤中者濃度高,可溶性還原態氮與可溶性有
機態氮的趨勢也是類似,紅壤處理者較高。紅壤中之處理,磷吸收量較大,磷濃度以堆肥
處理高於化肥處理。鉀濃度則以紅壤中之處理較高,並受到鈣影響。鈣濃度是葉部和莖部
高,紅壤中以豬糞堆肥處理鈣濃度最高,石灰質土壤中之處理則高於紅壤中者。鎂濃度以
堆肥處理高於化學肥料處理。茶樹對鋁的吸收量較一般作物大,本研究中紅壤處理者鋁含
量顯著較高,尤以台茶12號為甚,多集中於根部。鐵濃度以根部最高。錳含量集中在葉部
,紅土處理顯著較高。鋁與錳濃度均受到鈣影響。孵育試驗中,pH值呈緩慢上升的趨勢,
而後略為下降。飽和水電導度則是逐漸上升,堆肥量多與水分含量高者,飽和水電導度也
較高。在紅壤中,豬糞堆肥處理者飽和水電導度較豌豆稻殼堆肥處理者高,而石灰質土壤
中則相反。銨態氮含量方面,石灰質土壤中之處理原有少量,但隨時間變為很少,紅壤中
原來濃度較高,先是略為增加,而後持續減少。硝酸態氮則是逐漸增加,所含堆肥量較多
的處理,增加的幅度也較大,一般而言,石灰質土中硝酸態氮濃度較高。
As the uplifting of living standard in Taiwan, the consumption of tea is in
creasing in recent years. More and more customers expect for buying organic t
ea because of concerning about their own health. In organic farming system, fa
rmers use organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer to protect the env
ironment and to maintain the ecosystem balance. However, we don''t know much a
bout the effect of tea plants growing on different organic fertilizer. The eff
ects of pea-rice hull compost and hog dung manure in acid red soil and calcare
ous soil on the growth and nutrient uptake of TTES No.12 and Chin-shin Oolong
were studied in this study. Besides, an incubation experiment was set to see t
he decomposition and nutrient releasing of the two organic fertilizers in the
two soils. In the pot experiment, two organic fertilizers, two soils, and two
kinds of tea cultivar were used and chemical fertilizer was as check treatment
. There were twelve treatments and each treatment was replicated six times and
arranged in randomized completely block design. The tea plants and soil sampl
es were sampled after nine months planting. The tea plants were separated into
root, stem and leaf and the nitrogen composition, and the concentration of ph
osphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, and manganese were a
nalyzed. The pH, electric conductivity of saturation extract, the concentratio
n of nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and Bray No. 1 extractable P of soils
were also determined. There were sixteen treatments and every treatment was r
eplicatedthree times in the incubation experiment. The soils were sampled ever
y ten days and were analyzed pH, electric conductivity of saturation extract,
the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen.In the pot experim
ent, TTES No.12 that grew in red soil and applied with hog dung manure had the
highestproduction and absorbed most nitrogen among the treatments. The tea pl
ants grew better in red soil than in calcareous soil and TTES No.12 grew bette
r thanChin-shin Oolong. The nitrogen concentration of the tea plants growing i
n redsoil was higher than that in calcareous soil. Both nitrate nitrogen and a
mmonium nitrogen concentration in the tea plants was low. Insoluble nitrogen w
as the major portion of nitrogen and the insoluble nitrogen concentration of t
he tea plants growing in red soil was higher than that in calcareous soil. The
trend of total soluble reduced nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen concentr
ationon was similar. In acid red soil, the tea plants absorbed more phosphorou
s and the concentration were higher in organic fertilizer treatment than that
in chemicalfertilizer treatment. The concentration of potassium was also highe
r in red soil and affected by the concentration of calcium in the tea plants.
In red soil,the hog dung manure treated plant had the highest calcium concentr
ation but that in calcareous soil was higher than in red soil. The magnesium c
oncentrationwas higher in organic fertilizer treatment than that in chemical f
ertilizertreatment. The aluminum concentration of the tea plants growing in re
d soil was significantly higher and that in TTES No. 12.The aluminum concentra
tion in TTES No. 12 was higher than that in Chin-shin Oolong.Most aluminum wa
s concentrated in roots and iron, too. The manganeseconcentration of the tea p
lants growing in red soil was higher than that inother parts. The absorption o
f aluminum and manganese was also affected by calcium in the growth medium. In
the incubation experiment, the soil pH was increasing slowly at the beginning
and then decreasing. Soil with higher application rate of organic fertilizer
and higher water content had higher electric conductivity of saturation extra
ct. In red soil, the electric conductivity of saturation extract of hog dung m
anure treatmentwas higher than that of pea-rice hull compost treatment but the
reverse was true in calcareous soil. The ammonium nitrogen concentration in b
oth soils was low and decreasing by time. The nitrate nitrogen concentration i
n both soils was increasing by time and the application rate of fertilizers. T
he nitrate concentration in calcareous soil was higher than that in the red so
il.
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